136,219 research outputs found

    Codes, Cultures, Chaos, and Champions: Common Features of Legal Codification Experiences in China, Europe, and North America

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    What are the key conditions and factors that contribute to a successful effort within a political unit to create a new legal code? This article builds of the existing "comparative codification" literature by examining that question in the context of three very different legal traditions: dynastic Chinese law, European civil law, and North American common law. Drawing on nine important codification experiences-four from China, two from Europe and three from North American-the author posits that three conditions must exist in a legal system for codification to occur: (i) that written law is generally regarded favorably as a means of ordering society; (ii) that the top political authority in the society is powerful enough to impose a code; and (iii) that such top political authority is eager to champion the cause of codification. Assuming these three necessary conditions are present, several key contributing factors-for example, cultural change and legal chaos-further augur in favor of codification. The author identifies five such factors and illustrates their importance in each of the nine codification experiences. The article concludes with some observations about (i) the value of including traditional Chinese law in comparative codification studies and (ii) the interplay between the concentration of political power (lacking, for example, in the international legal system) and the likelihood of legal codification

    To Know is to Be: Three Perspectives on the Codification of Knowledge

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    This paper presents three perspectives on the codification of knowledge. These perspectives are formed by recent contributions in the fields of economics, business and management studies and of a group of writers who have a ‘relational’ perspective from the field of organisational behaviour. A comparison of these differing views highlights not only epistemological boundaries between different approaches but can also lead to the novel approach to studying knowledge codification presented in this paper. This approach is based on the knowledge topography of Cowan et al. (2000). This paper also develops a research approach for examining the situated intricacies of knowledge sharing in group activities as a means for identifying opportunities for knowledge codification in settings where, so far, only tacit knowledge has been seen as the major focus. Such research may enable us to bridge the dichotomy of explicit versus tacit knowledge and the three perspectives on knowledge codification presented. Moreover, in-depth case studies on the possibilities for knowledge codification can advance both the academic and practical debate. (Cowan, R., David, P.A. and Foray, D. (2000) ‘The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 9(2), 211-254.)Knowledge Codification, Knowledge Perspectives, Situated Study

    Generative capacities of cellular automata codification for evolution of NN codification

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    Proceeding of: International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks. ICANN 2002, Madrid, Spain, August 28-30, 2002Automatic methods for designing artificial neural nets are desired to avoid the laborious and erratically human expert’s job. Evolutionary computation has been used as a search technique to find appropriate NN architectures. Direct and indirect encoding methods are used to codify the net architecture into the chromosome. A reformulation of an indirect encoding method, based on two bi-dimensional cellular automata, and its generative capacity are presented.Publicad

    Codified-Tacit and General-Specific Knowledge in the division of labour among firms. A study of the Software Industry

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    This paper addresses the organisation and codification of knowledge in the software industry. It analyses various economic incentives to codification, including the need to improve the productivity and quality of software production processes and to access inter-firm collaborations. The paper examines the experience of four Italian software firms specialised in software packages and services. It compares their capabilities, the main sources of tacit knowledge, their specific incentives to invest in knowledge codification, their usage of formal software development methodologies and quality control systems. Finally, the paper analyses two distinct technological collaborations that two of these firms have recently established.

    Improving Spatial Codification in Semantic Segmentation

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    This paper explores novel approaches for improving the spatial codification for the pooling of local descriptors to solve the semantic segmentation problem. We propose to partition the image into three regions for each object to be described: Figure, Border and Ground. This partition aims at minimizing the influence of the image context on the object description and vice versa by introducing an intermediate zone around the object contour. Furthermore, we also propose a richer visual descriptor of the object by applying a Spatial Pyramid over the Figure region. Two novel Spatial Pyramid configurations are explored: Cartesian-based and crown-based Spatial Pyramids. We test these approaches with state-of-the-art techniques and show that they improve the Figure-Ground based pooling in the Pascal VOC 2011 and 2012 semantic segmentation challenges.Comment: Paper accepted at the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2015. Quebec City, 27-30 September. Project page: https://imatge.upc.edu/web/publications/improving-spatial-codification-semantic-segmentatio

    Embedding machine-readable proteins interactions data in scientific articles for easy access and retrieval

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    Extraction of protein-protein interactions data from scientific literature remains a hard, time- and resource-consuming task. This task would be greatly simplified by embedding in the source, i.e. research articles, a standardized, synthetic, machine-readable codification for protein-protein interactions data description, to make the identification and the retrieval of such very valuable information easier, faster, and more reliable than now.
We shortly discuss how this information can be easily encoded and embedded in research papers with the collaboration of authors and scientific publishers, and propose an online demonstrative tool that shows how to help and allow authors for the easy and fast conversion of such valuable biological data into an embeddable, accessible, computer-readable codification

    International Crimes: Jus Cogens and Obligatio Erga Omnes

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    There are both gaps and weaknesses in the various sources of International Criminal Law in norms and enforcement modalities. A comprehensive international codification would solve these problems, but this is not forthcoming

    Internal versus External Labour Flexibility : The Role of Knowledge Codification.

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    This article uses a competence-based approach to the firm in order to analyse the recent destabilisation of internal labour markets. We argue that increasing knowledge codification made possible by the diffusion of information and communication technologies has made competences less dependent upon individuals. Knowledge has been increasingly embodied in firms themselves which has played an important role in lowering the relative cost of human resource management strategies based on external labour flexibility. As a consequence, recourse to external labour markets has developed, which may harm firms' innovative capabilities in the long run.Competences; knowledge codification; information technologies; internal labour markets;

    Codification: The future of English consumer law?

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    EuCML granted Brunel University London the permission to archive this article in BURA (http://bura.brunel.ac.uk)

    Les enjeux de la codification en France

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    La France, patrie des codes, connaĂźt actuellement une grande effervescence en matiĂšre de codification, tant au sein des pouvoirs publics qu’en doctrine. Depuis une cinquantaine d’annĂ©es, un vaste mouvement de codification Ă  droit constant a Ă©tĂ© entrepris, alors que, parallĂšlement, plusieurs codes ont Ă©tĂ© rĂ©novĂ©s en profondeur, comme le Code pĂ©nal ou le Code de procĂ©dure civile, et que le Code civil a fait l’objet d’une rĂ©novation partielle particuliĂšrement rĂ©ussie. L’enjeu de ces diffĂ©rentes codifications est d’abord technique : choisir une codification-compilation ou une codification-modification pour tenter au mieux de remĂ©dier Ă  une crise des sources du droit qui nous affecte en restaurant une certaine sĂ©curitĂ© juridique. Cependant, la question de la codification dĂ©passe le seul cadre du droit positif : ses enjeux sont Ă©galement politiques. La codification assure la cohĂ©sion gĂ©ographique et sociologique d’une nation, voire lui permet de rĂ©sister Ă  des menaces culturelles venues de l’étranger, comme en tĂ©moigne l’exemple français.France, the homeland of codes, is currently in the throes of enthusiasm over codification, both among government authorities and in the compilation of doctrine. For the past fifty years, a vast movement of law renewal through codification has been undertaken, while, at the same time, several codes have received in-depth revitalization, e.g. the Penal Code and the Code of Civil Procedure, while the Civil Code has been the subject of a partial and particularly successful renovation. The critical factor underlying these various codifications is, in the first place, a technical one, namely to settle for a codification-compilation or a codification-modification in an attempt to remedy in the best possible manner a crisis in the sources of law that affects us by restoring a measure of jural security. Nonetheless, the issue of codification extends beyond the confines of substantive law and its stakes are also political. Codification ensures the geographic and sociological cohesion of a nation, even to the extent of making it possible to fend off cultural incursions from abroad, as seen in the French example