573,859 research outputs found

    Time-Hopping Multicarrier Code-Division Multiple-Access

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    A time-hopping multicarrier code-division multiple-access (TH/MC-CDMA) scheme is proposed and investigated. In the proposed TH/MC-CDMA each information symbol is transmitted by a number of time-domain pulses with each time-domain pulse modulating a subcarrier. The transmitted information at the receiver is extracted from one of the, say MM, possible time-slot positions, i.e., assuming that MM-ary pulse position modulation is employed. Specifically, in this contribution we concentrate on the scenarios such as system design, power spectral density (PSD) and single-user based signal detection. The error performance of the TH/MC-CDMA system is investigated, when each subcarrier signal experiences flat Nakagami-mm fading in addition to additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). According to our analysis and results, it can be shown that the TH/MC-CDMA signal is capable of providing a near ideal PSD, which is flat over the system bandwidth available, while decreases rapidly beyond that bandwidth. Explicitly, signals having this type of PSD is beneficial to both broadband and ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) communications. Furthermore, our results show that, when optimum user address codes are employed, the single-user detector considered is near-far resistant, provided that the number of users supported by the system is lower than the number of subcarriers used for conveying an information symbol

    Quantum internet using code division multiple access

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    A crucial open problem in large-scale quantum networks is how to efficiently transmit quantum data among many pairs of users via a common data-transmission medium. We propose a solution by developing a quantum code division multiple access (q-CDMA) approach in which quantum information is chaotically encoded to spread its spectral content, and then decoded via chaos synchronization to separate different sender-receiver pairs. In comparison to other existing approaches, such as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), the proposed q-CDMA can greatly increase the information rates per channel used, especially for very noisy quantum channels.Comment: 29 pages, 6 figure

    Precise BER Formulas for Asynchronous QPSK-Modulated DS-CDMA Systems Using Random Quaternary Spreading Over Rayleigh Channels

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    Precise bit-error-ratio (BER) analysis of an asynchronous QPSK-modulated direct-sequence code-division multiple-access system using random quaternary spreading sequences for transmission over Rayleigh channels is performed based on the characteristic-function approach. Its accuracy is verified by our numerical simulation results and also compared with those of the Gaussian approximation. Index Terms—Asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA), bit-error-ratio (BER), precise, QPSK, quarternary spreading, Rayleigh

    Statistical Modeling of Multiple Access Interference Power: a Nakagami-m Random Variable

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    This paper proposes a statistical model for the total multiple access interference (MAI) power for both Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems. We consider the use of both Walsh-Hadamard (WH) and Gold spreading codes transmitting over the asynchronous uplink channel. Detailed signal models of both CDMA systems are derived illustrating the production of MAI under asynchronous conditions. The paper demonstrates the Gaussian nature of the total MAI and shows that the probability density function (pdf) of the total MAI power can be very accurately characterized by the Nakagami-m distribution

    Multi-carrier code division multiple access

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    Nonnegative Code Division Multiple Access Techniques in Molecular Communication

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    In molecular communication, two types of multiple access have been studied: time division and molecule division. In this work, we consider code division multiple access. However, unlike code division multiple access that has been used for electromagnetic signals, we investigate optical code division multiple access: since molecular signals have the same non-negativity feature as optical signals, this scheme is a promising solution for molecular communication. In this thesis, we perform experiments and set up simulation models which match these experiments. Moreover, using simulations, we find the features of optical code division multiple access for molecular communication. Our results include an optimal information transmission scheme, and an algorithm to decode molecular information signals. Finally, we demonstrate reliable communication with multiple access by using this scheme

    Blind Joint Soft-Detection Assisted Slow Frequency-Hopping Multicarrier DS-CDMA

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    A novel multiple-access scheme based on slow frequency-hopping multicarrier direct-sequence, code-division multiple access (SFH/MC DS-CDMA) is proposed and investigated, which can be rendered compatible with the existing second-generation narrow-band CDMA and third-generation wide-band CDMA systems. Blind joint soft-detection of the SFH/MC DS-CDMA signals is investigated, assuming that the receiver has no knowledge of the associated frequency-hopping (FH) patterns invoked. The system’s performance is evaluated over the range of Nakagami multipath fading channels. The results show that blind joint soft-detection achieves the required bit-error rate performance, while blindly acquiring the FH patterns employed. This is advantageous during the commencement of communications or during soft handover. Index Terms—Blind detection, code-division multiple access, constant-weight codes, frequency-hopping, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

    Comparison of CDMA and FDMA for the MobileStar(sm) system

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    Spread-spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) and single channel per carrier frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems are compared for spectrum efficiency. CDMA is shown to have greater maximum throughput than FDMA for the MobileStar(sm) system which uses digital voice activated carriers and directive circularly polarized satellite antennas

    Analysis of Serial Search Based Code Acquisition in the Multiple Transmit/Multiple Receive Antenna Aided DS-CDMA Downlink,

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    Abstract—In this paper, we investigate the serial-search-based initial code-acquisition performance of direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) employing multiple transmit/multiple receive antennas when communicating over uncorrelated Rayleigh channels. We characterize the associated performance trends as a function of the number of antennas. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to our expectation, the achievable correctdetection probability degrades in our typical target operational Ec/I0 range as the number of transmit antennas is increased. When maintaining a given total transmit power, our findings suggest that increasing the number of transmit antennas results in the combination of the low-energy noise-contaminated signals of the transmit antennas, which ultimately increases the mean acquisition time (MAT). However, it is extremely undesirable to increase theMAT when the system is capable of attaining its target bit-error-ratio performance at reduced signal-power levels, as a benefit of employing multiple transmit antennas. Index Terms—Code acquisition, direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA), multiple transmit/multiple receive antennas (MTMR), serial search