107,838 research outputs found

    Comparison of physical fitness between healthy and mild‐to‐moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms: A cross‐sectional study

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    .Objective Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect physical fitness, although its primary effects on exercise capacity, muscle strength, functionality and lifestyle, in children and adolescents, are still poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle, lung function, and functionality between asthmatics with exercise symptoms and healthy children. In addition, we have analyzed the association between clinical history and the presence of asthma. Study Design Cross-sectional study including 71 patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 71 healthy children and adolescents (7–17 years of age). Anthropometric data, clinical history, disease control, lifestyle (KIDMED and physical activity questionnaires), lung function (spirometry), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction test, aerobic fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise test), muscle strength and functionality (timed up and go; timed up and down stairs) were evaluated. Results Seventy-one patients with asthma (mean age 11.5 ± 2.7) and 71 healthy subjects (mean age 10.7 ± 2.5) were included. All asthmatic children had mild to moderate and stable asthma. EIB occurred in 56.3% of asthmatic children. Lung function was significantly (p < .05) lower in the asthmatic group when compared to healthy peers, as well as the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle and functionality. Moreover, asthmatic children were more likely to have atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions, food allergies, and a family history of asthma when compared to healthy children. Conclusions Children with mild-to-moderate asthma presenting exercise symptoms show a reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, functionality, and lifestyle when compared to healthy peers. The study provides data for pediatricians to support exercise practice aiming to improve prognosis and quality of life in asthmatic children.S

    The effect of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodations on the local economy: evidence from Madrid

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    This paper investigates the effect of P2P accommodations on the local economy of the city of Madrid. We find that the arrival of Airbnb has fostered food and beverage services. We exploit the exogenous variation created by the timing and the unequal distribution of Airbnb listings across the urban geography to identify its effects on the number and employment of food and beverage services. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we find positive effects on both the number of restaurants and their employees: an increase in ten Airbnb rooms in a given census tract translates to one more restaurant, and the same increase in a given neighbourhood generates nine new tourist-related employees. The results are robust to sample composition, spatial spillovers and alternative measures of tourist-related activities. This paper contributes to the literature on the economic impacts of the platform economy on urban areas by providing evidence of positive economic externalities from P2P accommodations

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Aspectos clínicos de la COVID-19

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    La transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 generalmente ocurre por gotitas respiratorias de diferente tamaño. Los síntomas de presentación suelen incluir fiebre, tos, astenia, mialgia o disnea. La mayoría de las personas infectadas son asintomáticas o tienen una enfermedad leve, pero una minoría desarrolla insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva que requiere hospitalización y soporte respiratorio. El tratamiento es fundamentalmente de soporte, sin embargo, en pacientes hospitalizados, algunos agentes antivirales directos (administrados durante los primeros días de la infección) y el tratamiento inmunomodulador con esteroides y bloqueadores de citocinas (en el periodo de hiperinflamación), pueden mejorar el pronóstico. No obstante, se necesitan nuevas moléculas antivirales frente a SARS-CoV-2, con buena tolerancia y que se puedan administrar por vía oral, para evitar la progresión de la enfermedad, prevenir el contagio en pacientes de riesgo y cortar la cadena de transmisión. La duración exacta de la inmunidad después de la infección natural o la vacunación aún espera un estudio de seguimiento a largo plazo. Después de una COVID aguda, un número significativo de pacientes desarrollan diversos síntomas persistentes que, en la mayoría de personas, mejoran espontáneamente a lo largo de las semanas o meses siguientes. La pandemia de COVID-19 ha provocado millones de infecciones en todo el mundo, con morbi-mortalidad significativa, y generado una tensión extrema en los sistemas sanitarios y económicos. La buena noticia es la aparición de vacunas muy eficaces que están ayudando a controlar la enfermedad en países desarrollados; de su implementación masiva durante los próximos meses, incluyendo a los países con menos recursos, va a depender el control adecuado de esta pandemia

    Del modelo del Plan Badajoz a la Declaración de Gredos. Dos modelos de desarrollo rural = From the Badajoz Plan model to the Gredos Declaration. Two models of rural development

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    El problema de la despoblación derivado de la falta de oportunidades económicas ha sido una constante en la España rural desde mediados del siglo XX. En este sentido, el plan Badajoz (1952) fue considerado como el primer ensayo español de planificación regional a través de la transformación de campos de secano a regadío y su posterior colonización con la creación de pueblos que permitieran un desarrollo económico de la zona. Transcurridos 67 años de la realización del plan, la despoblación en Extremadura ha seguido persistiendo e incluso se ha agravado en la última década pese al incremento poblacional en España. Entre las diferentes alternativas existentes, la declaración de Gredos (2019) pretende nuevamente la involucración de las diferentes administraciones públicas, tanto nacionales como supranacionales, al objeto de promover unas condiciones favorables que permitan el progreso social y económico de las diferentes regiones españolas, evitando no solamente la despoblación de las zonas rurales, sino también una distribución de la renta regional y personal más equitativa que la actualmente existente entre el campo y la ciudad. Si bien en la actualidad, la estructura socioeconómica del país es sustancialmente distinta a la que originó el plan Badajoz y por tanto las estrategias a seguir son radicalmente opuestas, los objetivos perseguidos siguen siendo los mismos, así como la necesidad de coordinar unas políticas públicas encaminadas al logro de dicho fin. El objetivo de esta investigación será comparar ambos planes, analizando los errores cometidos en el plan Badajoz y su posible traslación a las nuevas estrategias de desarrollo desde una perspectiva de la planificación estratégica

    Introduction to Special Issue “Advances in Sustainability-Oriented Innovations”

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    8836This Special Issue focuses on the study of Sustainability-Oriented Innovations (SOIs). Our purpose is to shed light on the SOIs literature regarding their determining factors, implications and new challenges for the future. In this editorial, we are delighted to present the three papers included in this Special Issue. Each of them tackles di erent issues related to SOIs having important academic and managerial implications. Two papers analyze the influence of SOIs on urban development and resource productivity, respectively, and the third studies SOIs determinants, in particular, cooperation networks. Moreover, two of the papers analyze SOIs considering territory (cities or countries) as their unit of analysis while the third focuses on firms. This denotes that SOIs’ actions are important whatever the level of analysis and as either a determinant or a consequence.S

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

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    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: insulation sector summary

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    South Yorkshire low carbon energy supply chains: hydrogen sector summary

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    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa’s Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived ‘problems’ with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n = 27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the “trips” most often made; and respondents’ “single biggest problem with… cycling”. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n = 26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n = 8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n = 2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making ‘trips’ during the preceding month (n = 18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the “single biggest problem with… cycling” by far the commonest was “Don’t know how to cycle” (32.2%), less than half as many citing “Vehicle accident risk” (15.9%), and fewer still: “Destination is too far” (13.9%); “Crime” (10.3%); “Too much effort” (9.2%); or “Lack of good paths” (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the ‘the trips most often made’ that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited “Don’t know how” as the “single biggest problem with… cycling”; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle
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