152,617 research outputs found

    The importance of circulating tumor products as „liquid biopsies” in colorectal cancer

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    Liquid biopsies represent an array of plasma analysis tests that are studied to evaluate and identify circulating tumor products, especially circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Examining such biomarkers in the plasma of colorectal cancer patients has attracted attention due to its clinical significance in the treatment of malignant diseases. Given that tissue samples are sometimes challenging to procure or unsatisfactory for genomic profiling from patients with colorectal cancer, trustworthy biomarkers are mandatory for guiding treatment, monitoring therapeutic response, and detecting recurrence. This review considers the relevance of flowing tumor products like circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating messenger RNA (mRNA), circulating micro RNA (miRNA), circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEPs) for patients with colorectal cancer

    The rationale for liquid biopsy in colorectal cancer: focus on circulating tumor cells

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    Capturing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and/or circulating tumor DNA from blood, which represents a precious source of biological material derived from both primary and metastatic tumors, has been named a 'liquid biopsy'. While the circulating tumor DNA might be more representative of the bulk of the metastatic tumor, CTCs are thought to reflect more of the metastases-initiating cells. Consequently, a liquid biopsy made of tumor cells and tumor DNA that is able to track cancer evolution, as a fingerprint of the patient's individual tumor, and is easy to perform at every stage of the disease course, sounds attractive. This article mainly focuses on the applications of CTCs to track tumor dynamics in real time using colorectal cancer as a model system. The analysis of viable CTCs at DNA, RNA and protein levels, as well as their expansion in vitro, may allow deep investigation of the features of metastases-initiating cells

    Metastasis and circulating tumor cells

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    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made \ud about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process

    The potential for liquid biopsies in the precision medical treatment of breast cancer.

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    Currently the clinical management of breast cancer relies on relatively few prognostic/predictive clinical markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2), based on primary tumor biology. Circulating biomarkers, such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may enhance our treatment options by focusing on the very cells that are the direct precursors of distant metastatic disease, and probably inherently different than the primary tumor's biology. To shift the current clinical paradigm, assessing tumor biology in real time by molecularly profiling CTCs or ctDNA may serve to discover therapeutic targets, detect minimal residual disease and predict response to treatment. This review serves to elucidate the detection, characterization, and clinical application of CTCs and ctDNA with the goal of precision treatment of breast cancer

    Discrete microfluidics for the isolation of circulating tumor cell subpopulations targeting fibroblast activation protein alpha and epithelial cell adhesion molecule

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    Circulating tumor cells consist of phenotypically distinct subpopulations that originate from the tumor microenvironment. We report a circulating tumor cell dual selection assay that uses discrete microfluidics to select circulating tumor cell subpopulations from a single blood sample; circulating tumor cells expressing the established marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule and a new marker, fibroblast activation protein alpha, were evaluated. Both circulating tumor cell subpopulations were detected in metastatic ovarian, colorectal, prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer patients and 90% of the isolated circulating tumor cells did not co-express both antigens. Clinical sensitivities of 100% showed substantial improvement compared to epithelial cell adhesion molecule selection alone. Owing to high purity (>80%) of the selected circulating tumor cells, molecular analysis of both circulating tumor cell subpopulations was carried out in bulk, including next generation sequencing, mutation analysis, and gene expression. Results suggested fibroblast activation protein alpha and epithelial cell adhesion molecule circulating tumor cells are distinct subpopulations and the use of these in concert can provide information needed to navigate through cancer disease management challenges

    Circulating tumor cells

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    The importance of circulating tumor products as „liquid biopsies” in colorectal cancer

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    Liquid biopsies represent an array of plasma analysis tests that are studied to evaluate and identify circulating tumor products, especially circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Examining such biomarkers in the plasma of colorectal cancer patients has attracted attention due to its clinical significance in the treatment of malignant diseases. Given that tissue samples are sometimes challenging to procure or unsatisfactory for genomic profiling from patients with colorectal cancer, trustworthy biomarkers are mandatory for guiding treatment, monitoring therapeutic response, and detecting recurrence. This review considers the relevance of flowing tumor products like circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating messenger RNA (mRNA), circulating micro RNA (miRNA), circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEPs) for patients with colorectal cancer

    Recent translational research: circulating tumor cells in breast cancer patients

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    In breast cancer patients, hematogenous tumor cell dissemination can be detected, even at the single cell level, by applying immunocytochemical and molecular assays. Various methods for the detection of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood have been described. Results from recently reported studies suggest that circulating tumor cell levels may serve as a prognostic marker and for the early assessment of therapeutic response in patients with metastatic breast cancer. However, in early-stage breast cancer, the impact of circulating tumor cells is less well established than the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow; several clinical studies have demonstrated that cells of the latter type are an independent prognostic factor at primary diagnosis. In this article we briefly summarize recent studies examining the presence of circulating tumor cells in the blood and discuss further clinical applications
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