850 research outputs found

    The Papal Bulls on Papyrus: an Approach to their Conservation

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    There are few Papal bulls on Papyrus, it is a support difficult to find and to preserve, and that’s why we have to consider them like an exceptional historic and cultural heritage, especially in Catalonia where some important collections are preserved. Our work over the years has been studying, documenting and preserving these extraordinary documents and setting some precedents which will serve as a good model for their documentation and for any action on conservation or restoration in the future. From our professional point of view, an important amount of information can be found through different museums and Cathedral archives which is fundamental to understand the route of the document and its own history through the centuries

    The implementation of the Counter-Reformation in Catalan-speaking lands (1563-1700): A successful process?

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    The process of the Counter-Reformation, embarked on after the Council of Trent (1545-1563), was successful in some parts of Europe, whilst in others it did not manage to change the existing religious practices or morals. In the Catalanspeakinglands, we cannot yet reach a definitive answer on the success or failure of the Counter-Reformation. We do know that there was an intense reforming campaign undertaken by the king, the Church authorities and a major swath of the regular clergy, heightened by fear that proximity to France and Occitan immigrants would foster the penetration of Calvinism. Vast resources were poured into the propagation of the Catholic dogmas and the reform of the clergy, as defined during and after the Council of Trent. However, other factors hindered this process, including banditry and the presence of Muslim converts to Christianity. A hypothesis can be put forth that in heavily urban areas, the Counter-Reformation was ultimately imposed in the middle term, but that it encountered more difficulties in the mountainous and more rural and isolated areas despite the efforts of the reformers

    Architecture and the arts in Catalonia during the Renaissance

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    This is an overview of the process of transformation of the architecture, sculpture and painting of Catalonia during the Renaissance. It attempts to reconstruct the fundamental era of changes when the late Gothic models were replaced by the new Renaissance paradigm gestated in Italy, thus ushering in the modern cycle of arts in the country. Despite the relative dearth of a Catalan historiographic tradition that studies and explains the cultural heritage from this period – which was decimated by the massive destruction in the 19th and 20th centuries, which particularly targeted religious works – we begin to trace the major outlines of the process of assimilating the Renaissance which got underway in the 16th century and did not culminate until well into the 17th century. What emerges is the notable volume of artistic output undertaken, the main agents and factors in the transformation, the slow yet steady pace of the incorporation of changes, the long phase of hybridisation and the uneven acceptance of Renaissance features depending on the different parametersof architecture or figurative arts considered

    The fine arts during the Baroque period in the Principality of Catalonia and the countships of Roussillon and the Cerdagne

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    Once the prejudices that hindered our understanding of Baroque art’s true nature had been overcome, the history of Catalan art has been rehabilitating the memory of the Baroque period and discovering a more faithful image of it. Nonetheless, it has also had to accept that much of the art from this period has been seriously compromised by the destruction wrought by the Eclesiastical Confiscations of the 19th century and the Civil War of the 20th century. It is the memory of a fundamental, decisive era in the shaping of Catalonia’s historical and artistic heritage, one that is brimming with authors and episodes capable of fostering stories as interesting, intense and suggestive as those from any other period in Catalan art history

    The Enlightenment in Catalonia

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    This article sketches out a historiographic picture of the Enlightenment in Catalonia: first it analyses the qualities of the concept, how it was adapted to the reality of Catalonia and how it has been interpreted from different vantage points, and secondly it summarises the milestones achieved by this movement according to the most recent literature

    The Enlightenment in Catalonia

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    This article sketches out a historiographic picture of the Enlightenment in Catalonia: first it analyses the qualities of the concept, how it was adapted to the reality of Catalonia and how it has been interpreted from different vantage points, and secondly it summarises the milestones achieved by this movement according to the most recent literature

    Peasant Servitude in Mediaeval Catalonia

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    The essay looks at the late-mediaeval serfs in Catalunya Vella who were known as remences, peasants tied to the land they occupied and to their lords by the necessity to “redeem” themselves from servitude in order to obtain the freedom to move away. They also were subject to what were considered degrading payments known as mals usos (“bad customs”). The way such a condition came about, the reason it affected only part of the Principality of Catalonia and the origins of the remences’ revolt of 1462-1486 are the main topics of the article

    The Catalonia of the 10th to 12th centuries and the historiographic definition of feudalism

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    The historiographic evolution of the concept of feudalism, from its formulation in the 17th century until today, has affected Catalonia differently. In the last quarter of the 20th century, it reached a prominent position as a paradigm of the mutationist model. The numerous sources still conserved, coupled with the enrichment of interpretative perspectives, facilitate a revision. However, it should be undertaken cautiously in light of the pitfalls of the documentation itself and the hermeneutic difficulties. Nonetheless, revision is a challenge that cannot be neglected given that the events that took place in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula between the 10th and 12th centuries heavily conditioned the subsequent history

    Barcelona And Its Rulers, 1096-1291

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    Based on extensive archival research, this volume examines the early growth of Barcelona and the formation of its ruling classes and challenges many traditional assumptions about the nature of Mediterranean towns. Because the city emerged as a commercial centre later than its rivals, the transformation of the urban economy from a regional agricultural market into an international trading emporium is well documented and places the take-off of the European economy in a new light. Barcelona\u27s growth consisted of two distinct phases, interrupted by a long period of stagnation: the first phase was based on market-oriented agriculture and tribute from Islamic Spain, the second on craft production, finance, and trade. Barcelona\u27s patriciate did not emerge at the beginning of the urban revival but only during its second stage. Its rise formed part of a profound restructuring of territorial power in response to the feudal crisis that challenged traditional authority throughout Catalonia. As the comital dynasty gained strength, barons and knights loosened their ties to the city. Unlike many Mediterranean towns, Barcelona never fell under the sway of an urban aristocracy. Patrician families did not model themselves after noble patrilineages, but forged marital alliances in which the wife\u27s dowry played a fundamental role
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