59,935 research outputs found

    A case-control study on risk factors of breast cancer in China

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    Introduction: To screen the risk factors associated with breast cancer among Chinese women in order to evaluate the individual risk of developing breast cancer among women in China. Material and methods: A case-control study on 416 breast cancer patients and 1156 matched controls was conducted in 14 hospitals in 8 provinces of China in 2008. Controls were age- and region-matched to the cases. Clinicians conducted in-person interviews with the subjects to collect information on demographics and suspected risk factors for breast cancer that are known worldwide. Conditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between risk factors and breast cancer. Results: Compared with matched controls, women with breast cancer were significantly more likely to have higher body mass index (BMI, OR = 4.07, 95% CI; 2.98-5.55), history of benign breast disease (BBD) biopsy (OR = 1.68, 95% CI; 1.19-2.38), older age of menarche (AOM) (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 107-187), stress anticipation (SA), for grade 1-4, OR = 2.15, 95% CI; 1.26-3.66; for grade 5-9, OR = 3.48, 95% CI; 2.03-5.95) and menopause (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.282) at the level of p < 0.05. Family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in first-degree relatives (OR = 1.66, 95% CI; 0.77-3.59) and use of oral contraceptives (OC) (OR = 1.59, 95% CI; 0.83-3.05) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at the level of p < 0.20. Conclusions: Our results showed that BMI, history of BBD biopsy, older AOM, SA and menopause were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. The findings derived from the study provided some suggestions for population-based prevention and control of breast cancer in China.Medicine, General & InternalSCI(E)15ARTICLE2303-309

    Breast cancer stage at diagnosis and area-based socioeconomic status: a multicenter 10-year retrospective clinical epidemiological study in China

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been focused on as a key determinant of cancer stage at diagosis in western countries, there has been no systemic study on the relationship of SES and breast cancer stage at diagnosis in China.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The medical charts of 4,211 eligible breast cancer patients from 7 areas across China who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2008 were reviewed. Four area-based socioeconomic indicators were used to calculate area-based SES by cluster analysis. The associations between area-based SES and stage at diagnosis were analyzed by trend chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios for individual demographic characteristics' effects on cancer stages, stratified by area-based SES.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The individual demographic and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer cases were significantly different among the seven areas studied. More breast cancer cases in low SES areas (25.5%) were diagnosed later (stages III & IV) than those in high (20.4%) or highest (14.8%) SES areas (<it>χ</it><sup>2 </sup>for trend = 80.79, <it>P </it>< 0.001). When area-based SES is controlled for, in high SES areas, cases with less education were more likely to be diagnosed at later stages compared with more educated cases. In low SES areas, working women appeared to be diagnosed at earlier breast cancer stages than were homemakers (OR: 0.18-0.26).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>In China, women in low SES areas are more likely to be diagnosed at later breast cancer stages than those in high SES areas.</p

    Breast Self-Examination for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer: A Quantitative Research Approach

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    Breast cancer now accounts for almost one in four cancers diagnosed in women, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today (after lung cancer). According to Globocan 2012, India along with United States and China collectively accounts for almost one third of the global breast cancer burden. India is facing challenging situation due to 11.54% increases in incidence and 13.82% increase in mortality due to breast cancer during 2008-2012.1 The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of breast self-examination among college girls. A descriptive research design was used to conduct the study. The study was conducted among the college girls of a selected college of Delhi (Rufaida College of Nursing, Jamia Hamdard). The sample size was 70 and the subject was selected using the convenient sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of breast self-examination among college girls. Findings of the present revealed that majority of the subjects (88.6%) possess previous information of breast cancer, while few of the subjects (11.4%) were not aware much about the breast cancer. The study concludes that emphasis should be given to the studies that are related to the breast self-examination as there is an urgent need to look after the issues of growing risk of breast cancer and their poor health seeking behavior in young age

    Comparison of outcomes between immediate implant-based and autologous reconstruction: 15-year, single-center experience in a propensity score-matched Chinese cohort

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    Objective: The number of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) procedures has been increasing in China. This study aimed to investigate the oncological safety of IBR, and to compare the survival and surgical outcomes between implant-based and autologous reconstruction. Methods: Data from patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who underwent immediate total breast reconstruction between 2001 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Long-term breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) were evaluated. Patient satisfaction with the breast was compared between the implant-based and autologous groups. BCSS, DFS, and LRFS were compared between groups after propensity score matching (PSM). Results: A total of 784 IBR procedures were identified, of which 584 were performed on patients with invasive breast cancer (implant-based, n = 288; autologous, n = 296). With a median follow-up of 71.3 months, the 10-year estimates of BCSS, DFS, and LRFS were 88.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) (85.1%–93.0%)], 79.6% [95% CI (74.7%–84.8%)], and 94.0% [95% CI (90.3%–97.8%)], respectively. A total of 124 patients completed the Breast-Q questionnaire, and no statistically significant differences were noted between groups (P = 0.823). After PSM with 27 variables, no statistically significant differences in BCSS, DFS, and LRFS were found between the implant-based (n = 177) and autologous (n = 177) groups. Further stratification according to staging, histological grade, lymph node status, and lymph-venous invasion status revealed no significant survival differences between groups. Conclusions: Both immediate implant-based and autologous reconstruction were reasonable choices with similar long-term oncological outcomes and patient-reported satisfaction among patients with invasive breast cancer in China

    Hepatitis B virus reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A review and meta-analysis of prophylaxis management

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    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during or after chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer has become a remarkable clinical problem. Prophylactic nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are recommended for patients with breast cancer who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive before chemotherapy. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine use with nonprophylaxis in HBsAg-positive breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for relevant articles until June 2016. Eligible articles comparing the efficacy of prophylactic lamivudine use with nonprophylaxis in HBsAg-positive breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were identified. Eight studies which had enrolled 709 HBsAg-positive breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were analysed. Lamivudine prophylaxis significantly reduced the rates of chemotherapy-associated hepatitis B flares in chronic hepatitis B in breast cancer compared with patients with nonprophylaxis (odds ratio [OR]=0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07-0.35, P<.00001). Chemotherapy disruption rates attributed to HBV reactivation in the prophylaxis groups were significantly lower than the nonprophylaxis groups (OR=0.17, 95% CI: 0.07-0.43, P=.0002). Patients with lamivudine prophylaxis had a higher risk for tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) motif mutations than patients with nonprophylaxis (OR=6.33, 95% CI: 1.01-39.60, P=.05). Prophylactic antiviral therapy management is necessary for HBsAg-positive breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, in spite of high correlation with lamivudine-resistant HBV variants with YMDD motif mutations

    Gus Lee

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    Augustus Samuel Mein-Sun Lee was born in San Francisco on August 8, 1946, the only son of Tsung-Chi Lee and Da-Tsien Tsu. His three sisters had been born in mainland China and accompanied his mother on the difficult trek across China to India and then to the United States in 1944. There, the family rejoined Tsung-Cbi, wbo had once been a major in the Kuomintang army and who, since 1939, had been working in San Francisco for the Bank of Canton. When Gus was only five, his mother died of breast cancer, and his father, two years later, married a severe Pennsylvania Dutch woman. Gus grew up in the Panhandle and the Haight, a predominantly African American area of San Francisco, and he had a difficult time becoming accepted. He joined the Young Men\u27s Christian Association (YMCA) and learned to box