127,716 research outputs found

    The Hidden Increase in Wage Inequality: Skill-biased and Ability-biased Technological Change

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    This study provides strong evidence for an increase in wage inequality induced by skillbiased technological change in the UK manufacturing industry between 1991 and 2006. Using individual level data from the BHPS and industry level data from the OECD, wage regressions are estimated which identify the eff ect of innovative activity on wages – the personal innovation wage premium – for university and less educated workers. Innovative activity is defi ned by R&D expenditure and patent applications to measure innovation input and innovation output, respectively. Using diff erent estimation methods for panel data, such as Fixed eff ects, Random eff ects, Mundlak and Hausman- Taylor models, additionally to pooled OLS allows controlling for both industry-specifi c and individual ability. Using R&D expenditure as a measure for innovative activity additionally provides evidence for ability-biased technological change while patent applications do not support this hypothesis.Wage inequality; skill-biased technological change; ability-biased technological change; United Kingdom

    Special Libraries, May-June 1957

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    Volume 48, Issue 5https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/sla_sl_1957/1004/thumbnail.jp

    Special Libraries, December 1961

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    Volume 52, Issue 10https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/sla_sl_1961/1009/thumbnail.jp

    The Occupational Structure of Further and Higher Education in Ireland and the Netherlands

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    Although most types of education give access to a range of occupations, the educational background determines to a large extent the labour market possibilities of a worker. However, since educational systems vary widely between different countries, there is a question about the specific role of each type of education in a country and the influence of the structure of the educational system as a whole on the relationship between education and the labour market. In this paper a comparison of the occupational structure of further and higher education in Ireland and the Netherlands is made. This comparison is based on a common occupational classification, which provides the possibility of measuring the extent of the occupational domains of types of education and the overlap in occupational domain of different types of education within each country and between both countries. The extent of the occupational domain and the similarities within a country provide information about aspects of the occupational structure of higher education in both countries, while the similarities between types of education in both countries make it possible to determine in a simple way the mutual position of types of education in the two countries. It is shown in the paper that since the Irish education system is more generally oriented than the Dutch system, Ireland has a broader occupational domain for similar types of further and higher education, on average, than the Netherlands. In addition the occupational domains for academics and technicians in Ireland have more overlap between different fields of study than in the Netherlands. Furthermore, despite the fact that the fraction of higher educated people in the Netherlands considerably exceeds the fraction in Ireland – which might result in some qualifications inflation – some types of education in Ireland, such as engineering and agricultural science, at higher levels seem to be closer to the Dutch intermediate vocational level than to the higher level.education, training and the labour market;

    Involvement of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase A in the Enhancement of L-type Calcium Current by GABA\u3csub\u3eB\u3c/sub\u3e Receptor Activation in Neonatal Hippocampus

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    In the early neonatal period activation of GABAB receptors attenuates calcium current through N-type calcium channels while enhancing current through L-type calcium channels in rat hippocampal neurons. The attenuation of N-type calcium current has been previously demonstrated to occur through direct interactions of the βγ subunits of Gi/o G-proteins, but the signal transduction pathway for the enhancement of L-type calcium channels in mammalian neurons remains unknown. In the present study, calcium currents were elicited in acute cultures from postnatal day 6–8 rat hippocampi in the presence of various modulators of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways. Overnight treatment with an inhibitor of Gi/o (pertussis toxin, 200 ng/ml) abolished the attenuation of calcium current by the GABAB agonist, baclofen (10 μM) with no effect on the enhancement of calcium current. These data indicate that while the attenuation of N-type calcium current is mediated by the Gi/o subtype of G-protein, the enhancement of L-type calcium current requires activation of a different G-protein. The enhancement of the sustained component of calcium current by baclofen was blocked by PKC inhibitors, GF-109203X (500 nM), chelerythrine chloride (5 μM), and PKC fragment 19–36 (2 μM) and mimicked by the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (1 μM). The enhancement of the sustained component of calcium current was blocked by PKA inhibitors H-89 (1 μM) and PKA fragment 6–22 (500 nM) but not Rp-cAMPS (30 μM) and it was not mimicked by the PKA activator, 8-Br-cAMP (500 μM–1 mM). The data suggest that activation of PKC alone is sufficient to enhance L-type calcium current but that PKA may also be involved in the GABAB receptor mediated effect

    Development of Optical Biosensor Technologies for Cardiac Troponin Recognition

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    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases. Among the numerous attempts to develop coronary marker concepts into clinical strategies, cardiac troponin is known as a specific marker for coronary events. The cardiac troponin concentration level in blood has been shown to rise rapidly for 4–10 days after onset of AMI, making it an attractive approach for a long diagnosis window for detection. The extremely low clinical sensing range of cardiac troponin levels consequently makes the methods of detection highly sensitive. In this review, by taking into consideration optical methods applied for cardiac troponin detection, we discuss the most commonly used methods of optical immunosensing and provide an overview of the various diagnostic cardiac troponin immunosensors that have been employed for determination of cardiac troponin over the last several years

    Triclocarban Influences Antibiotic Resistance and Alters Anaerobic Digester Microbial Community Structure

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    Triclocarban (TCC) is one of the most abundant organic micropollutants detected in biosolids. Lab-scale anaerobic digesters were amended with TCC at concentrations ranging from the background concentration of seed biosolids (30 mg/kg) to toxic concentrations of 850 mg/kg to determine the effect on methane production, relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community structure. Additionally, the TCC addition rate was varied to determine the impacts of acclimation time. At environmentally relevant TCC concentrations (max detect = 440 mg/kg), digesters maintained function. Digesters receiving 450 mg/kg of TCC maintained function under gradual TCC addition, but volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, pH decreased, and methane production ceased when immediately fed this concentration. The concentrations of the mexB gene (encoding for a multidrug efflux pump) were higher with all concentrations of TCC compared to a control, but higher TCC concentrations did not correlate with increased mexB abundance. The relative abundance of the gene tet(L) was greater in the digesters that no longer produced methane, and no effect on the relative abundance of the class 1 integron integrase encoding gene (intI1) was observed. Illumina sequencing revealed substantial community shifts in digesters that functionally failed from increased levels of TCC. More subtle, yet significant, community shifts were observed in digesters amended with TCC levels that did not inhibit function. This research demonstrates that TCC can select for a multidrug resistance encoding gene in mixed community anaerobic environments, and this selection occurs at concentrations (30 mg/kg) that can be found in full-scale anaerobic digesters (U.S. median concentration = 22 mg/kg, mean = 39 mg/kg)
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