3,341 research outputs found

    A murine model of variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis recapitulates behavioral and pathological phenotypes of human disease.

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    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs; also known collectively as Batten Disease) are a family of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders. Mutations in as many as 13 genes give rise to ∼10 variants of NCL, all with overlapping clinical symptomatology including visual impairment, motor and cognitive dysfunction, seizures, and premature death. Mutations in CLN6 result in both a variant late infantile onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL) as well as an adult-onset form of the disease called Type A Kufs. CLN6 is a non-glycosylated membrane protein of unknown function localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we perform a detailed characterization of a naturally occurring Cln6 mutant (Cln6(nclf)) mouse line to validate its utility for translational research. We demonstrate that this Cln6(nclf) mutation leads to deficits in motor coordination, vision, memory, and learning. Pathologically, we demonstrate loss of neurons within specific subregions and lamina of the cortex that correlate to behavioral phenotypes. As in other NCL models, this model displays selective loss of GABAergic interneuron sub-populations in the cortex and the hippocampus with profound, early-onset glial activation. Finally, we demonstrate a novel deficit in memory and learning, including a dramatic reduction in dendritic spine density in the cerebral cortex, which suggests a reduction in synaptic strength following disruption in CLN6. Together, these findings highlight the behavioral and pathological similarities between the Cln6(nclf) mouse model and human NCL patients, validating this model as a reliable format for screening potential therapeutics

    The Chihuahua dog: A new animal model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis CLN7 disease?

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    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurodegeneration and accumulation of lipopigments mainly within the neurons. We studied two littermate Chihuahua dogs presenting with progressive signs of blindness, ataxia, pacing, and cognitive impairment from 1 year of age. Because of worsening of clinical signs, both dogs were euthanized at about 2 years of age. Postmortem examination revealed marked accumulation of autofluorescent intracellular inclusions within the brain, characteristic of NCL. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on one of the affected dogs. After sequence alignment and variant calling against the canine reference genome, variants were identified in the coding region or splicing regions of four previously known NCL genes (CLN6, ARSG, CLN2 [=TPP1], and CLN7 [=MFSD8]). Subsequent segregation analysis within the family (two affected dogs, both parents, and three relatives) identified MFSD8:p.Phe282Leufs13*, which had previously been identified in one Chinese crested dog with no available ancestries, as the causal mutation. Because of the similarities of the clinical signs and histopathological changes with the human form of the disease, we propose that the Chihuahua dog could be a good animal model of CLN7 disease

    Brain imaging in Kufs disease type B. case reports

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    The clinical traits of Kufs disease (KD) type B (CLN13), an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), are well established according to the neurological features of the cases reported with mutations in CTSF. The neuroradiological characteristics of this uncommon disease have not yet been outlined

    Atypical presentation of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 8 in a sibling pair and review of the eye findings and neurological features.

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    Purpose:To report atypical presentation of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses type 8 (CLN8) to the eye clinic and review clinical features of CLN8. Observations:Detailed eye exam by slit lamp exam, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, visual fields and electroretinogram (ERG). Molecular genetic testing using Next Generation Sequencing panel (NGS) and array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH).The siblings in this study presented to the eye clinic with retinitis pigmentosa and cystoid macular edema, and a history of seizures but no severe neurocognitive deficits or regression. Genetic testing identified a c.200C > T (p.A67V) variant in the CLN8 gene and a deletion encompassing the entire gene. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes revealed fingerprint inclusions in both siblings. Conclusions:and Importance: Pathogenic variants in CLN8 account for the retinitis pigmentosa and seizures in our patients however, currently, they do not have regression or neurocognitive decline. The presentation of NCL can be very diverse and it is important for ophthalmologists to consider this in the differential diagnosis of retinal disorders with seizures or other neurological features. Molecular genetic testing of multiple genes causing isolated and syndromic eye disorders using NGS panels and aCGH along with additional complementary testing may often be required to arrive at a definitive diagnosis

    Progressive retinal degeneration and glial activation in the Cln6nclf mouse model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis : a beneficial effect of DHA and Curcumin supplementation

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    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders characterized by vision loss, mental and motor deficits, and spontaneous seizures. Neuropathological analyses of autopsy material from NCL patients and animal models revealed brain atrophy closely associated with glial activity. Earlier reports also noticed loss of retinal cells and reactive gliosis in some forms of NCL. To study this phenomenon in detail, we analyzed the ocular phenotype of CLN6nclf mice, an established mouse model for variant-late infantile NCL. Retinal morphometry, immunohistochemistry, optokinetic tracking, electroretinography, and mRNA expression were used to characterize retinal morphology and function as well as the responses of Müller cells and microglia. Our histological data showed a severe and progressive degeneration in the CLN6nclf retina co-inciding with reactive Müller glia. Furthermore, a prominent phenotypic transformation of ramified microglia to phagocytic, bloated, and mislocalized microglial cells was identified in CLN6nclf retinas. These events overlapped with a rapid loss of visual perception and retinal function. Based on the strong microglia reactivity we hypothesized that dietary supplementation with immuno-regulatory compounds, curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), could ameliorate microgliosis and reduce retinal degeneration. Our analyses showed that treatment of three-week-old CLN6nclf mice with either 5% DHA or 0.6% curcumin for 30 weeks resulted in a reduced number of amoeboid reactive microglia and partially improved retinal function. DHA-treatment also improved the morphology of CLN6nclf retinas with a preserved thickness of the photoreceptor layer in most regions of the retina. Our results suggest that microglial reactivity closely accompanies disease progression in the CLN6nclf retina and both processes can be attenuated with dietary supplemented immuno-modulating compounds

    Glial cells are functionally impaired in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and detrimental to neurons.

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    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs or Batten disease) are a group of inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorders of childhood. In these disorders, glial (microglial and astrocyte) activation typically occurs early in disease progression and predicts where neuron loss subsequently occurs. We have found that in the most common juvenile form of NCL (CLN3 disease or JNCL) this glial response is less pronounced in both mouse models and human autopsy material, with the morphological transformation of both astrocytes and microglia severely attenuated or delayed. To investigate their properties, we isolated glia and neurons from Cln3-deficient mice and studied their basic biology in culture. Upon stimulation, both Cln3-deficient astrocytes and microglia also showed an attenuated ability to transform morphologically, and an altered protein secretion profile. These defects were more pronounced in astrocytes, including the reduced secretion of a range of neuroprotective factors, mitogens, chemokines and cytokines, in addition to impaired calcium signalling and glutamate clearance. Cln3-deficient neurons also displayed an abnormal organization of their neurites. Most importantly, using a co-culture system, Cln3-deficient astrocytes and microglia had a negative impact on the survival and morphology of both Cln3-deficient and wildtype neurons, but these effects were largely reversed by growing mutant neurons with healthy glia. These data provide evidence that CLN3 disease astrocytes are functionally compromised. Together with microglia, they may play an active role in neuron loss in this disorder and can be considered as potential targets for therapeutic interventions

    Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

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    This study aims at characterizing feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in this population. Other features include a late-onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96) with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners respectively felt the GTCS and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50), and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric-onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition

    Morphologic and functional correlates of synaptic pathology in the cathepsin D knockout mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

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    Mutations in the cathepsin D (CTSD) gene cause an aggressive neurodegenerative disease (congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) that leads to early death. Recent evidence suggests that presynaptic abnormalities play a major role in the pathogenesis of CTSD deficiencies. To identify the early events that lead to synaptic alterations, we investigated synaptic ultrastructure and function in pre-symptomatic CTSD knock-out (Ctsd(−/−)) mice. Electron microscopy revealed that there were significantly greater numbers of readily releasable synaptic vesicles present in Ctsd(−/−) mice than in wild-type control mice as early as postnatal day 16. The size of this synaptic vesicle pool continued to increase with disease progression in the hippocampus and thalamus of the Ctsd(−/−) mice. Electrophysiology revealed a markedly decreased frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with no effect on pair-pulse modulation of the evoked EPSPs in the hippocampus of Ctsd(−/−) mice. The reduced miniature EPSC frequency was observed before the appearance of epilepsy or any morphological sign of synaptic degeneration. Taken together, the data indicate that CTSD is required for normal synaptic function, and that a failure in synaptic trafficking or recycling may be an early and important pathological mechanism in Ctsd(−/−) mice; these presynaptic abnormalities may initiate synaptic degeneration in advance of subsequent neuronal loss

    Frequency estimation of disease-causing mutations in the Belgian population of some dog breeds, part 1 : shepherds

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    In light of improving breeding advice, the frequency was estimated for all the disease-causing mutations that were known at the start of the study and that are potentially relevant for a group of dog breeds, which are relatively popular or in which the genetic diversity in Belgium is low to moderately low. In this study, the results for the German shepherd dog, Malinois, Lakenois, Groenendael, Tervuren, Australian shepherd and Border collie are presented. Disorders with a frequency high enough to warrant routine genotyping for breeding programs are (1) multidrug resistance 1 and hereditary cataract for the Australian shepherd, (2) degenerative myelopathy for the German shepherd dog, Malinois and Groenendael and (3) collie eye anomaly for the Border collie. In addition, the hyperuricosuria mutation described in the German shepherd dog was not found in its Belgian population, but was, to the authors' knowledge discovered for the first time in the Malinois
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