29,909 research outputs found

    Measuring the impacts of maternal child marriage and maternal intimate partner violence and the moderating effects of proximity to conflict on stunting among children under 5 in post-conflict Sri Lanka

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    This study aimed to understand whether maternal child marriage and past year intimate partner violence (IPV) impact stunting among Sri Lankan children under 5 years old, and, secondarily, whether proximity to conflict is associated with stunting. Additionally, we assessed whether proximity to conflict moderates the relationships between maternal child marriage and past year IPV (sexual, physical, and emotional). We tested these questions using logistic regression analyses of the 2016 Sri Lankan Demographic and Health Survey (n = 4941 mother-child dyads). In country-wide adjusted analyses, we did not find associations between maternal child marriage or IPV and stunting (p \u3e 0.05). Children in districts proximal and central to conflict were significantly less likely to be stunted compared to children in districts distal to conflict (proximal adjusted odds ratio/aOR: 0.43, 95% confidence interval/CI: 0.22‚Äď0.82; central aOR: 0.53, CI: 0.29‚Äď0.98). We found significant interaction effects on stunting between proximity to conflict and both sexual and emotional IPV, which we further explored in stratified analyses. In districts distal to conflict, maternal sexual IPV was significantly associated with increased odds of stunting (aOR: 2.71, CI: 1.16‚Äď6.35), and in districts central to conflict, maternal emotional IPV was significantly associated with increased odds of stunting (aOR: 1.80, CI: 1.13‚Äď2.89). Maternal emotional IPV was significantly associated with decreased odds of stunting in districts proximal to conflict (aOR: 0.42, CI: 0.18‚Äď0.96). Maternal child marriage and physical IPV were not associated with stunting in Sri Lanka. Variations in associations between maternal IPV and stunting across Sri Lanka may reflect the lasting and differential impact of conflict, as well as differential humanitarian responses which may have improved child nutrition practices and resources in districts central and proximal to conflict. Policies and programs addressing stunting in Sri Lanka should consider the role of maternal IPV as well as community-level variations based on proximity to conflict

    Sharing the Shore: Hybridity and Developing Environmentalisms in the Indiana Dunes

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    This thesis centers on the Indiana Dunes National Park, located in Northwestern Indiana, and the implications of this hybrid landscape on modern American environmentalism. Through secondary source research, historical analysis, and interviews with Miller Beach residents and a park ranger, this research concludes that the Indiana Dunes demonstrate an environmentalism that exists outside of the nature-culture binary. By incorporating the park into existing cities and industrial developments, the Indiana Dunes can be seen as a model for an environmental justice-driven space that diverges from the historic elitism of the National Park service. This research concludes that, while hybrid landscapes come with their own challenges, the hybridity of the Indiana Dunes ultimately points to a bright future for the National Park Service, one that makes public green space accessible and that radically rethinks what it means to be a National Park

    Female Foeticide And Infanticide: A Legal Analysis

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    Women play a pivotal role in the development of the society. They are an integral part of the mainstream development. Nonetheless, the domination of a female continues in many forms from womb to tomb in the society.[1]  Declining sex ratio and gender discrimination of the girl-child has become a deep-rooted problem in the society. The main reason being the crime of female foeticide and female infanticide. ‚ÄėFemale Foeticide‚Äô is the destruction of the female foetus in the mother‚Äôs womb and ‚ÄėFemale Infanticide‚Äô is the killing of the girl-child after her birth. If a girl-foetus escapes foeticide then infanticide is waiting for her after birth. Both, foeticide and infanticide, are socially tolerated problems. The desire of having a male child in family has become anissue of gravest concern, leading to gender discrimination. This paper is an attempt to identify the issues, the Law and its application to come to a relevant conclusion

    The effects of cultural dimensions on algorithmic news: How do cultural value orientations affect how people perceive algorithms?

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    How do cultural values influence/are influenced by algorithms? A comparative study was conducted between the United States (US) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to investigate how users in the different cultures perceive the features of chatbot-driven news and how they view ethical issues concerning chatbot journalism. Different models of chatbot news perception reveal that the acceptance of chatbots involves a cultural dimension as the algorithms reflect the values and interests of their constituencies. How users perceive chatbot news and how they consume and interact with the chatbots depend on the cultural and social contexts in which the interaction is taking place. Our results suggest the algorithms reflect cultural values and algorithms are implicitly situated in social contexts, mediated by cultural artifacts and activities. The results resonate with ongoing debates on whether and how algorithms reinforce cultural and social values implying the co-evolving nature of algorithms and humans

    Pharmacological, Biopesticide, and Post-Harvest Loss Management Application of Jimsonweed (<em>Datura stramonium</em>)

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    Datura stramonium is one of the most intriguing, in part because of its well-known therapeutic and psychoactive properties in the treatment of many diseases. Datura species have been found to exhibit a variety of biological activity. Insecticide, fungicide, antioxidant, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, and immune response boosting properties have been linked to the genus’ species. These effects are linked to the existence of secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, flavonoids, with anolides, tannins, phenolic compounds, and tropane alkaloids, which are the most prevalent atropine and scopolamine in the genus Datura. Ingestion of Jimson weed produces the toxidrome of anticholinergic intoxication. Understanding and recognizing the classic signs and symptoms of anticholinergic intoxication can help clinicians evaluate persons presenting with Jimson weed poisoning. Moreover, this review is to identify the most important phytochemical substances extracted from the Jimsonweed and to characterize their biological activity for health effect and biopesticide application. Biopesticides are less harmful than chemical pesticides because they do not leave harmful residues, generally target one specific pest or a small number of related pests rather than broad spectrum chemical pesticides that affect other beneficial insects, birds, mammals, or non-target species, are effective in smaller quantities, decompose quickly and do not cause environmental problems, and are often cheaper. In conclusion, Datura stramonium, beside its medicinal value, can applicable for biopesticide application and for postharvest loss control of insects such as weevil

    Malnutrition’s Prevalence and Associated Factors

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    Malnutrition, which affects roughly 2 billion people worldwide, is among the country’s most pressing health issues. In comparison to other developing nations, Pakistan has one of the worst prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We’ll explore how people in poor countries manage food scarcity. Owing to low per capita income and a lack of purchasing power for fundamental food staples that meet the human body’s nutritional demands. Malnourished children in Pakistan suffer from stunting, wasting, and being underweight. The causes of child malnutrition and stunting in Pakistan are discussed in this chapter, as well as the impact of numerous factors on stunting and the types of intervention methods and practices that should be devised and executed to address the problem

    Where Does Music End and Nonmusic Begin? Fine-tuning the ‚ÄúNaturalist Response‚ÄĚ Problem for Nontonal Music‚Äôs Naturalistic Critics

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    As to what distinguishes music from other sound, some investigators in both philosophy and cognitive scientists have answered ‚Äútonality.‚ÄĚ It seems subservient even to rhythm. Tonality is considered to be the central factor around which the piece is oriented; it gives a sense of home, expectation, and completeness. Most important, much of this inquiry builds on naturalistic, evolutionary explanation to account for human nature and behavior. The conclusion of such line of thought is that sounds missing tonality or tonal focus cannot be music. This article challenges such sort of naturalistic criteria distinguishing music from nonmusic. Permitting certain sets of sounds to be considered music does not necessitate denial or approval of naturalistic explanations but does allow nontonal music to serve a part of human and musical evolution

    Structural and Attitudinal Barriers to Bicycle Ownership and Cycle-Based Transport in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Policies that aim to facilitate and promote non-motorised transport (NMT), and in particular cycling, have been developed by many high-income countries facing increasingly congested roads and saturated public transport systems. Such policies are also emerging in many low- and middle-income settings where high rates of urbanisation have led to similar problems with motorised transport. The aim of the present study was to better understand the potential structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport in one such context: South Africa‚Äôs Gauteng Province, the industrial powerhouse of sub-Saharan Africa that has recently made a firm commitment to NMT. The study focussed on demographic and socioeconomic variation in bicycle and car ownership, and related this to: (1) the reported use of motorised and non-motorised transport (both private and public); and (2) perceived ‚Äėproblems‚Äô with cycling. The analyses drew on interviews with key respondents from n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ27,490 households conducted in 2013 as part of the third Quality of Life survey undertaken by the Gauteng City Regional Observatory. The survey contained items on three outcomes of interest: household vehicle ownership (bicycles and cars); modes of transport used for the ‚Äútrips‚ÄĚ most often made; and respondents‚Äô ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ. Respondent- and household-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants of these outcomes were examined using descriptive and multivariable statistical analyses, the latter after adjustment for measured potential confounders identified using a theoretical causal path diagram (in the form of a directed acyclic graph). Of the n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ26,469 households providing complete data on all of the variables examined in the present study, only n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ8722 (32.9%) owned a car and fewer still (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2244; 8.4%) owned a bicycle. The ownership of these assets was commonest amongst wealthier, economically active households; and those that owned a car had over five times the odds of also owning a bicycle, even after adjustment for potential confounding (OR 5.17; 95% CI 4.58, 5.85). Moreover, of household respondents who reported making ‚Äėtrips‚Äô during the preceding month (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ18,209), over two-thirds of those whose households owned a car (70.1%) reported private car-based transport for such trips, while only 3.2% of those owning a bicycle reported cycling. Amongst the specific responses given to the item requesting the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ by far the commonest was ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how to cycle‚ÄĚ (32.2%), less than half as many citing ‚ÄúVehicle accident risk‚ÄĚ (15.9%), and fewer still: ‚ÄúDestination is too far‚ÄĚ (13.9%); ‚ÄúCrime‚ÄĚ (10.3%); ‚ÄúToo much effort‚ÄĚ (9.2%); or ‚ÄúLack of good paths‚ÄĚ (4.6%). While the first of these reasons was commonest amongst poorer households, concerns about risk and effort were both most common amongst better educated, economically active and wealthier/better serviced households. In contrast, concerns over (cycle) paths were only common amongst those owning bicycles. The low prevalence of household bicycle ownership, and the disproportionate number of households owning bicycles that also owned cars, might explain the very small proportion of the ‚Äėthe trips most often made‚Äô that involved cycle-based transport (0.3%), and the preferential use of cars amongst households owning both bicycles and cars. Low levels of bicycle ownership might also explain why so many respondents cited ‚ÄúDon‚Äôt know how‚ÄĚ as the ‚Äúsingle biggest problem with‚Ķ cycling‚ÄĚ; although risk and effort were also substantial concerns (presumably for many who did, and some who did not, know how to cycle); the lack of suitable cycle lanes being only primarily a concern for those who actually owned bicycles. Structural and attitudinal barriers to cycle-based transport limit the use of cycle-based transport in Gauteng, not only amongst the vast majority of household respondents who lack the means to cycle (and the means to learn how), but also amongst those dissuaded from learning to cycle, purchasing a bicycle and/or using a bicycle they own by: the risks and effort involved; the lack of suitable cycle paths; and/or because they also own a car and prefer to drive than cycle

    The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Multi-wavelength polarimetry of bright regions in NGC 2071 in the far-infrared/submillimetre range, with POL-2 and HAWC+

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    Polarized dust emission is a key tracer in the study of interstellar medium and of star formation. The observed polarization, however, is a product of magnetic field structure, dust grain properties and grain alignment efficiency, as well as their variations in the line of sight, making it difficult to interpret polarization unambiguously. The comparison of polarimetry at multiple wavelengths is a possible way of mitigating this problem. We use data from HAWC+/SOFIA and from SCUBA-2/POL-2 (from the BISTRO survey) to analyse the NGC 2071 molecular cloud at 154, 214 and 850 őľm. The polarization angle changes significantly with wavelength over part of NGC 2071, suggesting a change in magnetic field morphology on the line of sight as each wavelength best traces different dust populations. Other possible explanations are the existence of more than one polarization mechanism in the cloud or scattering from very large grains. The observed change of polarization fraction with wavelength, and the 214-to-154 őľm polarization ratio in particular, are difficult to reproduce with current dust models under the assumption of uniform alignment efficiency. We also show that the standard procedure of using monochromatic intensity as a proxy for column density may produce spurious results at HAWC+ wavelengths. Using both long-wavelength (POL-2, 850 őľm) and short-wavelength (HAWC+, ‚Č≤200őľm) polarimetry is key in obtaining these results. This study clearly shows the importance of multi-wavelength polarimetry at submillimeter bands to understand the dust properties of molecular clouds and the relationship between magnetic field and star formation

    Uso de las histonas circulantes y sus modificaciones post-traduccionales como biomarcadores en sepsis y shock séptico

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    La sepsis es una afecci√≥n potencialmente mortal causada por una respuesta anormal del hu√©sped a una infecci√≥n, produciendo respuestas fisiol√≥gicas alteradas que da√Īan los propios tejidos del paciente y pueden provocar disfunci√≥n org√°nica e incluso la muerte. Asimismo, algunos pacientes s√©pticos progresan a shock s√©ptico, caracterizado por alteraciones circulatorias, celulares y metab√≥licas sustanciales que aumentan el riesgo de mortalidad. A pesar de que la sepsis se caracteriza por un mal funcionamiento del sistema inmunol√≥gico, lo que a su vez conduce a una respuesta inmune alterada e inmunosupresi√≥n, la alta complejidad de la fisiopatolog√≠a de la sepsis requiere una mayor investigaci√≥n para comprender las respuestas inmunes que ocurren durante la sepsis. Asimismo, las histonas extracelulares circulantes han ganado relevancia como mediadores citot√≥xicos en la sepsis, ya que act√ļan como patrones moleculares asociados a da√Īo, que inducen estr√©s oxidativo y activan el inflamasoma NLRP3. Estos mecanismos median la activaci√≥n de la piroptosis, un mecanismo de muerte celular programada que produce inflamaci√≥n mediante la expresi√≥n de IL-18, IL-1ő≤ and IL-1őĪ. Sin embargo, a pesar de la evidencia de activaci√≥n del inflamasoma en las c√©lulas inmunes durante la sepsis, se desconoce si las histonas extracelulares son capaces de activar los inflamasomas endoteliales y sus consecuencias. En este trabajo destacamos el papel previamente desconocido de las histonas extracelulares, mediando la activaci√≥n del inflamasoma NLRP3 y la piroptosis en las c√©lulas endoteliales, contribuyendo a la disfunci√≥n endotelial y la desregulaci√≥n de la respuesta inmune mediada por el endotelio. Asimismo, tambi√©n demostramos c√≥mo la acetilaci√≥n de histonas disminuye la activaci√≥n de la piroptosis. Adem√°s, demostramos que la piroptosis se produce en pacientes con shock s√©ptico y los niveles de histonas circulantes se correlacionan con la expresi√≥n de citoquinas proinflamatorias y citoquinas piropt√≥ticas, la liberaci√≥n de factores de adhesi√≥n endotelial y la gravedad de la enfermedad. Proponemos la piroptosis mediada por histonas como un nuevo objetivo para desarrollar intervenciones cl√≠nicas. De manera similar, hemos analizado las respuestas inmunorelacionadas que ocurren durante las primeras etapas de la sepsis con el objetivo de proporcionar nuevos datos comparando las cantidades de citoquinas, inmunomoduladores y otros mediadores endoteliales en pacientes cr√≠ticamente enfermos no s√©pticos, s√©pticos y de shock s√©ptico. Nuestro enfoque ayudar√° a caracterizar r√°pidamente las respuestas inmunes alteradas en pacientes s√©pticos y de shock s√©ptico ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Finalmente analizamos el papel de la metilaci√≥n del ADN en el control del sistema inmune s√©ptico. Nuestros resultados demostraron el papel central de la metilaci√≥n del ADN modulando la respuesta molecular en los pacientes de shock s√©ptico y contribuyendo a la inmunosupresi√≥n, a trav√©s de la alteraci√≥n de los patrones de metilaci√≥n de los promotores de IL-10 y TREM-2.Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by an abnormal host response to an infection that produce altered physiological responses which damages own tissues of the patient and can result in organ dysfunction and in some cases death. Likewise, a subset of septic patients progresses to septic shock, characterized by substantial circulatory, cellular and metabolic abnormalities, which substantially increase the risk of mortality. Sepsis is characterized by a malfunction of the immune system and it can lead to an altered immune response and immunosuppression. Moreover, the high complexity of the pathophysiology of sepsis requires of further investigation to characterize the immune responses in sepsis and septic shock. Likewise, circulating extracellular histones have gained relevance as cytotoxic mediators in sepsis pathophysiology, since they act as damage-associated molecular patterns, which induce oxidative stress and activate NLRP3 inflammasome. Subsequently, inflammasome mediates pyroptosis activation, a programmed cell death mechanism that produces inflammation through the release of IL-18, IL-1ő≤ and IL-1őĪ. However, despite inflammasome activation may occur in immune cells during sepsis, it is unknown if this process also takes place in endothelial cells and particularly whether extracellular histones are capable of activating endothelial inflammasomes and their consequences. In this work we highlight a previously unknown role for extracellular histones, that mediates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in endothelial cells by contributing to endothelial dysfunction and the dysregulation of the immune response mediated by endothelium. Likewise, we demonstrated how histone acetylation decreases pyroptosis activation. Furthermore, we show how pyroptosis occurs in septic shock patients and how circulating histone levels correlate with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pyroptotic cytokines, the release of endothelial adhesion factors and septic shock severity. We propose histone-mediated pyroptosis as a new target to develop clinical interventions. Similarly, we have analyzed the immune-related responses occurring during the early stages of sepsis with the aim of providing new data by comparing the amounts of cytokines, immune modulators and other endothelial mediators in critically-ill non-septic patients, septic and septic shock patients. Our approach will help to rapidly characterize the altered immune responses in septic and septic shock patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit. Finally, we also analyzed the role of DNA methylation in the control of septic immune system. Our results demonstrated the central role of DNA methylation modulating the molecular response in septic shock patients and contributing to immunosuppression, through the alteration of DNA methylation patterns of IL-10 and TREM2 promoters
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