34,630 research outputs found

    Photobiomodulation therapy on orthodontic movement: analysis of preliminary studies with a new protocol

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    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the acceleration of orthodontic movements, deriving from its biostimulating and regenerative capacity on soft tissues, consequent to the increase in differentiation, proliferation, and activity of cells that are involved with alveolar bone remodeling. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on six patients who required extractive orthodontic therapy because their ectopic canines had erupted. A total of eight canines were analyzed, four of which received laser irradiation (i.e., experimental group). Two weeks after the extractions, all canines of the experimental and placebo groups were distalized simultaneously and symmetrically with the laceback retraction technique. The PBMT protocol consisted of four cycles of laser applications, one each on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 of the study, with session treatment durations of 2-4 min. The results of the descriptive analysis on the distal displacement speed of the canines after 1 month of follow-up indicate an average displacement of 1.35 mm for the non-irradiated group and 1.98 mm for the irradiated group. Through inferential analysis, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the average speed of the irradiated canines and the control canines. The low energy density laser used in this study, with the parameters set, was found to be a tool capable of statistically significantly accelerating the distal displacement of canines

    Open versus closed surgical exposure of canine teeth that are displaced in the roof of the mouth

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    Background: Palatal canines are upper permanent canine (eye) teeth that have become displaced in the roof of the mouth. They are a frequently occurring anomaly, present in 2% to 3% of the population. Management of this problem is both time consuming and expensive and involves surgical exposure (uncovering) followed by fixed braces for 2 to 3 years to bring the canine into alignment within the dental arch. Two techniques for exposing palatal canines are routinely used in the UK: one method (the closed technique) involves orthodontically moving the canine into its correct position beneath the palatal mucosa and the second method (the open technique) involves orthodontically moving the canine into its correct position above the palatal mucosa. Objectives: To establish if clinical, patient centred and economic outcomes are different according to whether an ’open’ or ’closed’ technique is employed for uncovering palatal canines. Search strategy: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Oral Health Group’s Trials Register were searched (to 29th February 2008). There were no restrictions with regard to publication status or language. Selection criteria: Patients receiving surgical treatment to correct upper palatally impacted canines.Therewas no restriction for age, presenting malocclusion or the type of active orthodontic treatment undertaken. Unilateral and bilaterally displaced canines were included. Trials including participants with craniofacial deformity/syndrome were excluded. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently and in duplicate assessed studies for inclusion. The Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines were to be followed for data synthesis

    The prevalence of impacted permanent maxillary canines in Maltese school children : a pilot study

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    The aetiology of ectopic canines is not clear. A number of causes have been put forward such as the long path of eruption of the maxillary canine, lack of guidance by the lateral incisor root, narrow arches, cystic enlargement of the dental follicle large arches, and familial tendency. In this article the author gives a detail report of the pilot study carried out on Maltese school children in various schools compared to school children of other countries.peer-reviewe

    Thickness of the buccal bone wall and root angulation in the maxilla and mandible: an approach to cone beam computed tomography

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    Background: The objective of this paper is to anatomically describe the bone morphology in the maxillary and mandibular tooth areas, which might help in planning post-extraction implants. Methods: CBCT images (Planmeca ProMax 3D) of 403 teeth (208 upper teeth and 195 lower teeth) were obtained from 49 patients referred to the Dental School of Seville from January to December 2014. The thickness of the facial wall was measured at the crest, point A, 4mm below, point B, and at the apex, point C. The second parameter was the angle formed between the dental axis and the axis of the basal bone. Results: A total of 403 teeth were measured. In the maxilla, 89.4% of incisors, 93.94% of canines, 78% of premolars and 70.5% of molars had a buccal bone wall thickness less than the ideal 2mm. In the mandible, 73.5% of incisors, 49% of canines, 64% of premolars and 53% of molars had <1mm buccal bone thickness as measured at point B. The mean angulation in the maxilla was 11.67±6.37° for incisors, 16.88±7.93° for canines, 13.93±8.6° for premolars, and 9.89±4.8° for molars. In the mandible, the mean values were 10.63±8.76° for incisors, 10.98±7.36° for canines, 10.54±5.82° for premolars and 16.19±11.22° for molars. Conclusions: The high incidence of a buccal wall thickness of less than 2mm in over 80% of the assessed sites indicates the need for additional regeneration procedures, and several locations may also require custom abutments to solve the angulation problems for screw-retained crowns

    Retrospective analysis of the correlation between the facial biotype and the inclination of the upper canine cusp axis to the occlusal plane

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    Permanent maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth and the prevalence of this clinical condition is estimated to be 1-2% in the general population. The diagnosis of maxillary canine impaction should be based on both clinical and radiographic examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of a correlation between the facial biotype and the inclination of the upper cusp axis. A correlation between the total radicular length of the lateral incisors was also evaluated, by comparing the side of impaction with the healthy side. Twenty three patients with a diagnosis of unilateral upper cusp impaction were recruited. For each patient, dental casts and radiographic material (panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms) were examined. Statistical analyses were done with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's rho (V). X-ray examinations demonstrated that canine impaction was associated to other dental anomalies (32% of the sample). The mean S angle measurements were 22.9° ± 4.1°, and mean values of the T angle were 34.7°± 4.0°. The mean distance “d” value was 14.6 mm ± 1.2 mm. The mean values of the angle between the upper cusp axis and the perpendicular-to-Fh plane were 20.8 °± 2.6°. Among the 23 subjects recruited, 5 showed values included in the range 25°-45° and 1 an inclination > 45°. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between the MM angle and the inclination of the upper cusp axis to the perpendicular-to-Fh plan

    Whole exome sequencing in an Italian family with isolated maxillary canine agenesis and canine eruption anomalies

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    Objective: The aim of this study was the clinical and molecular characterization of a family segregating a trait consisting of a phenotype specifically involving the maxillary canines, including agenesis, impaction and ectopic eruption, characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Design: Clinical standardized assessment of 14 family members and a whole-exome sequencing (WES) of three affected subjects were performed. WES data analyses (sequence alignment, variant calling, annotation and prioritization) were carried out using an in-house implemented pipeline. Variant filtering retained coding and splice-site high quality private and rare variants. Variant prioritization was performed taking into account both the disruptive impact and the biological relevance of individual variants and genes. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate the variants of interest and to carry out segregation analysis. Results: Prioritization of variants “by function” allowed the identification of multiple variants contributing to the trait, including two concomitant heterozygous variants in EDARADD (c.308C&gt;T, p.Ser103Phe) and COL5A1 (c.1588G&gt;A, p.Gly530Ser), specifically associated with a more severe phenotype (i.e. canine agenesis). Differently, heterozygous variants in genes encoding proteins with a role in the WNT pathway were shared by subjects showing a phenotype of impacted/ectopic erupted canines. Conclusions: This study characterized the genetic contribution underlying a complex trait consisting of isolated canine anomalies in a medium-sized family, highlighting the role of WNT and EDA cell signaling pathways in tooth development

    The Relationships Between Fluoride Intake Levels and Fluorosis of Late‐Erupting Permanent Teeth

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    Objectives To examine the relationships between fluoride intake levels and fluorosis of late‐erupting permanent teeth. Methods The current study used information collected from 437 children in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study. Participants\u27 fluoride intake information was collected using questionnaires from birth to age 10 years. Estimated mean daily fluoride intake was categorized into low, moderate, and high intake tertiles for each age interval (2‐5, 5‐8, and 2‐8 years). Bivariate analyses were performed to study the relationships between self‐reported fluoride intake levels during three age intervals and dental fluorosis. Results For canines and second molars, the prevalence of mostly mild fluorosis was less than 10% in the lowest fluoride intake tertile and more than 25% in the highest intake tertile. For both first and second premolars, the prevalence in the low and high intake tertiles was approximately 10‐15% and 25‐40%, respectively. When estimated total daily fluoride intake was 0.04 mg/kg BW during ages 2‐8 years, the predicted probability of fluorosis was 16.0%, 20.5%, 21.8%, and 15.4% for canines, 1st and 2nd and premolars and 2nd molars, respectively. We found that an incremental increase in fluoride intake during the age 5‐ to 8‐year interval led to greater odds for development of mostly mild dental fluorosis in late‐erupting teeth compared to increases in fluoride intake during other age intervals. Conclusions Our results clearly show that dental fluorosis prevalence is closely related to fluoride intake levels and that teeth have greater susceptibility to fluoride intake during certain age intervals

    Enamel Hypoplasia of Deciduous Canine

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    From observation of frequency and measurement of the lengths and widths of enamel hypoplasia on the maxillary and mandibular deciduous canines, extracted from 50 Indians\u27 skulls, the following results were obtained. 1) Enamel hypoplasia occurred in 15% of the maxillary deciduous canines and 44% of the mandibular deciduous canines. 2) Symmetrical cases of enamel hypoplasia occurred in 8.0% of the maxillary deciduous canins and in 34% of the mandibular deciduous canines. The enamel hypoplasia on maxillary deciduous canines showed some association with the enamel hypoplasia on mandibular deciduous canines. 3) The average length of enamel hypoplasia was 1.8 mm in the maxillary canines and 2.3 mm in the mandiblar canines. 4) The average width of enamel hypoplasia was 1.8 mm in the maxillary canines and 2.3 mm in the mandibular canines
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