101 research outputs found

    “The Art of Getting Drunk:” Martial Masculinity, Alcohol, and the British Army in the Canadas in the War of 1812

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    This thesis argues that alcohol consumption, both real and perceived, played a key role in the construction and negotiation of masculine identities within the British army in the Canadas during the early nineteenth century. Officers in particular proved their manliness and constructed their dual gentleman-officer identity not only by fighting well, but also by socializing and drinking well; by demonstrating what the famous moral essayist, Dr. Samuel Johnson, called “skill in inebriation,” or the “art of getting drunk.” An officer’s capability or skill in drinking with his fellow gentlemen-officers denoted manliness, while habitual or public drunkenness had the opposite effect. His polite consumption in both public and private social settings defined him as a gentleman, while his strong consumption on the battlefield fortified his constitution and facilitated his performance as a warrior. His heavy consumption with peers established his place within a hierarchy of manliness, and his condemnation of the propensity for drink and the drunken comportment of his perceived social inferiors established his position atop larger gendered, classed, and racialized hierarchies in colonial society. Officers constructed their own masculine identity in direct relation to those with whom they interacted, specifically enlisted soldiers (and NCOs), Indigenous allies, and American enemies, and these constructions were heavily informed by early nineteenth century perceptions of alcohol

    Finding Directions West

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    In the past, Western Canada was a place of new directions in human thought and action, migrations of the mind and body, and personal journeys. This book anthology brings together studies exploring the way the west served as a place of constant movement between places of spiritual, subsistence and aesthetic importance. The region, it would seem, gained its very life in the movement of its people. Finding Directions West: Readings that Locate and Dislocate Western Canada's Past, showcases new Western Canadian research on the places found and inhabited by indigenous people and newcomers, as well as their strategies to situate themselves, move on to new homes or change their environments to recreate the West in profoundly different ways. These studies range from the way indigenous people found representation in museum displays, to the archival home newcomers found for themselves: how, for instance, the LGBT community found a place, or not, in the historical record itself. Other studies examine the means by which MĂ©tis communities, finding the west transforming around them, turned to grassroots narratives and historical preservation in order to produce what is now appreciated as vernacular histories of inestimable value. In another study, the issues confronted by the Stoney Nakoda who found their home territory rapidly changing in the treaty and reserve era is examined: how Stoney connections to Indian agents and missionaries allowed them to pursue long-distance subsistence strategies into the pioneer era. The anthology includes an analysis of a lengthy travel diary of an English visitor to Depression-era Alberta, revealing how she perceived the region in a short government-sponsored inquiry. Other studies examine the ways women, themselves newcomers in pioneering society, evaluated new immigrants to the region and sought to extend, or not, the vote to them; and the ways early suffrage activists in Alberta and England by World War I developed key ideas when they cooperated in publicity work in Western Canada. Finding Directions West also includes a study on ranchers and how they initially sought to circumscribe their practices around large landholdings in periods of drought, to the architectural designs imported to places such as the Banff Centre that defied the natural geography of the Rocky Mountains. Too often, Western Canadian history is understood as a fixed, precisely mapped and authoritatively documented place. This anthology prompts readers to think differently about a region where ideas, people and communities were in a constant but energetic flux, and how newcomers converged into sometimes impermanent homes or moved on to new experiences to leave a significant legacy for the present-day

    “She Too ‘Omanish’”: Young Black Women’s Sexuality and Reproductive Justice in Bluefields, Nicaragua

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    Most never-married young “Creole” (Afro-Caribbean) women in Bluefields, Nicaragua are raised in fundamentalist Protestant families and institutions that emphasize sexual abstinence before marriage. In this context, abstinence is required to maintain social standing and “respectability.” Nevertheless, women in Bluefields, the administrative center of Caribbean Nicaragua, exhibit what Creoles themselves understand to be high rates of sexuality and pregnancy among post-menarche unmarried teenaged women (USAID, 2012; Mitchell et al. 2015). Such young women’s pregnancies occur at an important developmental stage of their lives and have long been associated by social scientists with adverse social, emotional, and health situations. These scholars have widely debated the cause of “elevated” rates of teenage pregnancy, related issues of family structure, and reproductive practices among Afro-descendant peoples when compared with Whites in developed nations. One scholarly approach depends on cultural deficit models that attribute “poor” socialization, lack of impulse control, and lack of sexual regulation to Black families to explain phenomena such as the late-age marriages and high birth rates of single women in the Caribbean and the United States. Other scholars have pointed to structural inequities caused by the historical impact of anti-Black racism and impoverishment. However, these explanations do not account for how quotidian cultural processes interact with material, racial, and gendered structural inequalities to inhibit reproductive justice for young Creole women. Applying a Black feminist analytical and methodological framework and drawing on theory in sexuality studies, this dissertation brings the contradictions of a “politics of respectability” to the forefront by adding a cultural dimension to explanations centered on structural inequity. This project contends that, paradoxically, a colonial missionary Protestant-based “politics of respectability,” mobilized by some Black communities as a defense against prevailing discourses of racial inferiority, chief of which is the continuing dominant discourse of Black female hypersexuality, creates a “sexual panic” around young Creole women’s sexuality. This panic creates a familial and institutionally based disciplinary regime that inhibits young women’s access to reproductive justice, as well as producing in many young women individual counter-practices seeking to control their own desires and sexuality, resulting in observed high levels of teenage sexual activity and “out-of-wedlock” pregnancy. The dissertation expands the site for the theorization of respectability politics and challenges, from a Black feminist perspective, ideas about Black families and Black women, as it applies sexuality studies to forge new ways of thinking about gendered aspects of anti-Blackness, slavery, and its afterlife in Caribbean Latin America

    Of Sunken Islands and Pestilence

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    Edward Taylor Fletcher was born in England in 1817 and arrived in Canada as a young boy. An important figure in Canadian literature, Fletcher’s writing was almost entirely forgotten by history. In this volume, James Gifford has gathered and annotated Fletcher’s essays and poems, writings that describe a nineteenth-century Canadian cultural life far more cosmopolitan than what we might have imagined. Fletcher was a voracious reader of works in many languages and although he was oriented toward Britain, his writing notably reflects a gaze fixed on a horizon much further away. His work therefore stands in contrast to the tendency of later Canadian writers, who focus inward on the nation, and on issues of Canadian identity. His work as a surveyor allowed him to travel across the country, observing the Canadian landscape which appears interwoven with different literary traditions in his metrically complex poetry. By recuperating Fletcher’s works, Gifford expands our view of nineteenth-century Canadian literature and establishes Fletcher as a remarkable literary figure worthy of attention.Publishe

    Redressing the Past to Repair the Present: The Role of Property Law in Creating and Exacerbating Racial Disparities in Wealth and Poverty in Nova Scotia

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    For over 200 years African Nova Scotians have been fighting to confirm legal title to the land on which their ancestors were settled. In 2020, the Nova Scotia Supreme Court remarked “the lack of clear title and the segregated nature of their land triggered a cycle of poverty for black families that persisted for generations.” Nova Scotia has a long history of obscure land titles; however, the ensuing cycle of poverty appears to have disproportionately impacted African Nova Scotians. This thesis reframes the African Nova Scotian land titles discourse into a broader understanding about systemic anti-Black racism and White supremacist ideology embedded within the origins of property law in this province, revealing the land titles issue as merely the tip of the iceberg

    Confini e sconfinamenti

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    Il confine Ăš molto piĂč di un concetto astratto o di una linea di demarcazione. Da sempre campo di tensioni e convergenze geografiche, politiche, storiche, sociali, culturali, Ăš oggi oggetto di una rinnovata attenzione, sia in ambito accademico sia nel dibattito pubblico, sulla scia delle sue molteplici riconfigurazioni nello spazio globale. Per le universitĂ  di Trieste e Udine del Friuli Venezia Giulia, promotrici di questo volume, la questione del confine costituisce un interesse vivo e costante: lo testimonia la storia stessa della regione che, dall’invasione longobarda ai giorni nostri, ha visto il susseguirsi di invasioni massicce e penetrazioni violente, di aspri conflitti e strenue difese, ma anche l’incontro di persone, la contaminazione di lingue e culture profondamente diverse tra loro, la trasmissione e sedimentazione di saperi. È da tali presupposti, da un’idea quindi ampia di confine, che in questo volume convergono molte delle riflessioni sull’argomento elaborate all’interno del Dottorato interateneo in Storia delle societĂ , delle istituzioni e del pensiero. Dal Medioevo all’etĂ  contemporanea. Dottorandi/e e dottori/esse di ricerca hanno declinato il tema del confine e dello sconfinamento – anche disciplinare – in funzione della propria ricerca o di un aspetto peculiare della stessa. Il volume offre dunque ai lettori e alle lettrici un percorso attraverso cui esplorare il confine con metodologie e approcci diversificati, rispecchiando cosĂŹ il Dottorato che l’ha generato: un corso che in questi anni ha fatto del dialogo e della sua spiccata interdisciplinaritĂ  un valore fondante

    ‘We have always been here’: Busking, urban space and economy of Montreal

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    This dissertation follows the buskers in Montreal to garner from them an understanding of the city’s economy, culture and urban space, and their entanglements. It is a historical and geographical study that examines the position of the itinerant entertainer or musician in the political economy of the city. Both history and place are explored from the vantage point of this itinerant figure; and spaces frequented by buskers in the present or in the past are foregrounded in tracing urban transformations effecting the city since the 1960s. An oral history project, it engages with memories of busking and formal and informal archives to address the lived experiences of buskers in the contemporary city; transformations in spaces of busking and their position with relation to the city’s economy; contestations over urban public space; and the neoliberal entanglements of Montreal’s economy. Buskers' life histories are privileged in exploring concepts such as flexible, immaterial and precarious labour. The thesis, therefore, decenters the creative class in examining the entrepreneurial and self-regulated worker and the nature of labour intermediaries within the neoliberal economy. It shines a light on the role of surveillance and politics of access that are deepening social divides in this new economy. It also compares the historical representation of street musicians and performers to their own perceptions of busking. In doing so, it not only challenges the distinctions between work and leisure, but also between economic and cultural or social domains. The thesis foregrounds a temporal and spatial claim on the city by buskers. It is an argument for their place and practice in urban space and economy. Implicit is also a critique of urban planning and policies that are producing a sense of displacement among the economically and socially marginalised. Experiences of surveillance and power, institutionalisation of culture, and professionalization of public art within the cultural economy make visible the exclusionary landscapes of the postindustrial city. Finally, in centering informality and informal spaces of work and sociality through buskers, the thesis unsettles dominant narratives of Montreal to challenge a dichotomous framing of the world

    The Origins, Ethos and Evolution of Co-operative Credit in Ireland

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    Les nobles canadiens aprÚs la Cession. Se réinventer pour continuer à exister (1774-1815)

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    CotutelleEntre 1774 et 1815, la noblesse canadienne tente de stabiliser sa position sociale au sein d’une sociĂ©tĂ© canadienne dĂ©sormais sous tutelle britannique. Pour cela, les nobles opĂšrent une redĂ©finition culturelle et sociale de leur idĂ©e de noblesse afin de s’adapter au nouveau rĂ©gime. GrĂące aux relations qui s’établissent entre les nobles restĂ©s dans l’Empire britannique, ceux l’ayant quittĂ© et les nouvelles Ă©lites qui s’établissent dans la colonie au tournant du XIXe siĂšcle, il est possible de mieux apprĂ©hender la façon dont la noblesse rĂ©investit son capital symbolique. L’étude des patrimoines matĂ©riels, sociaux et intellectuels ainsi que leurs modes de transmission permettent d’examiner les modalitĂ©s d’adaptation de la communautĂ© noble. Enfin, cette noblesse Ă  cheval entre deux empires, dont les rĂ©seaux s’étendent sur de nombreux territoires, permet de mieux percevoir les Ă©volutions qui s’opĂšrent Ă  cette Ă©poque dans les sociĂ©tĂ©s coloniales et en particulier en AmĂ©rique du Nord et au Canada. En Ă©tudiant cinq familles emblĂ©matiques de la noblesse canadienne, cette thĂšse tente de rĂ©pondre Ă  la problĂ©matique et aux sous-questions suivantes : comment la noblesse francophone se renouvelle-t-elle et Ă©volue-t-elle en tant que groupe social distinct au sein des Ă©lites impĂ©riales entre 1774 et 1815 ? Qui est noble ? Être un noble canadien aprĂšs la Cession dans les empires français et britanniques, qu’est-ce que ça signifie ? Quelles sont les stratĂ©gies d’adaptation de la gĂ©nĂ©ration de la noblesse canadienne qui vit sa vie publique et adulte entre 1774 et 1815 ? Y a-t-il une « canadianisation » de la noblesse et, si oui, comment se caractĂ©rise-t-elle ? Les nobles canadiens s’adaptent-ils au nouveau rĂ©gime ? Les Ă©lites influencent de façon importante la construction de la sociĂ©tĂ© dans laquelle elles Ă©voluent : au XIXe siĂšcle la sociĂ©tĂ© canadienne-française telle qu’on la connaĂźt jusqu’au milieu du XXe siĂšcle commence Ă  se dĂ©velopper ; elle a en parti Ă©tĂ© mise en place par et pour les nobles canadiens. Ma recherche a donc pour but de trouver les mĂ©canismes de reproduction des Ă©lites coloniales. C’est-Ă -dire de comprendre comment, en particulier, les nobles continuent Ă  exister sous le RĂ©gime britannique. Mon hypothĂšse est que les nobles rĂ©ussissent Ă  trouver une forme d’équilibre entre le besoin de renouvellement qui dĂ©coule du changement de rĂ©gime et leur fidĂ©litĂ© Ă  des traditions prĂ©sentĂ©es comme sĂ©culaires. Ce sont des « camĂ©lĂ©ons sociaux » qui existent Ă  travers trois paradoxes : un imaginaire transnational dans une rĂ©alitĂ© juridique nationale ; un dĂ©sir d’éternitĂ© couplĂ© Ă  un besoin d’évolution constant ; une culture de la distinction affirmĂ©e Ă  l’intĂ©rieur de frontiĂšres poreuses. La thĂšse cherche encore Ă  mieux comprendre comment se vit une identitĂ© transatlantique et coloniale, se dĂ©tachant progressivement, mais jamais totalement des pairs de la « vieille Europe » et Ă  travers la formation d’une identitĂ© amĂ©ricaine au sein des empires. Elle dĂ©montre Ă©galement l’ambiguĂŻtĂ© qui existe entre l’identitĂ© noble coloniale, qui pousse au dĂ©tachement par rapport Ă  la mĂ©tropole, et l’identitĂ© Ă©litaire, qui, au contraire, ramĂšne les nobles canadiens vers l’Europe et les caractĂ©ristiques de son Ă©lite.Between 1774 and 1815, Canadian nobility attempted to stabilize their social position within a Canadian society now under British reign. In that order, nobles operated a cultural and social redefinition of their idea of nobility to adapt to the new regime. Thanks to the relationships that nobles who remained in the British Empire developed with those who left it, and the new elites who settled in the colony, it is possible to better understand how Canadian nobility reinvested its symbolic capital. The study of material, social and intellectual heritages as well as transmission mode make possible to examine the modalities of adaptation of the noble community. Finally, this nobility straddling two empires, whose networks spanned many territories, allows us to better perceive the changes that took place at that time in colonial societies and, more specifically, in North America and Canada. By studying five emblematic families of the Canadian nobility, this thesis attempts to answer the following problematic and sub-questions: how the French-speaking nobility is renewing itself and evolving as a distinct social group within the imperial elites between 1774 and 1815? Who is noble? What does it mean to be a Canadian nobleman after the Conquest in both French and British Empires? What are the coping strategies of the generation of Canadian nobility who lived their public and adult life between 1774 and 1815? Is there a “Canadianization” of the nobility and, if so, how is it characterized? Are nanadian nobles adjusting to the new regime? The elites significantly influence the construction of the society in which they operate: in the 19th century French Canadian society as we know it until the middle of the 20th century began to develop; it was in part set up by, and for, Canadian nobility. My research therefore aims to find its reproduction mechanisms. That is, to understand how, in particular, nobles continued to exist under British rule. My hypothesis is that the nobility manages to find some kind of balance between the need for renewal that arises from regime change and its loyalty to traditions presented as secular. Noblemen and women are “social chameleons” that exist through three paradoxes: a transnational imaginary in a national legal reality; a desire for eternity coupled with a constant need for evolution; a culture of distinction asserted within porous borders. This thesis seeks to better understand how a transatlantic and colonial identity is experienced, separating itself gradually, but never completely from the peers of "old Europe" and through the formation of a North American identity within the empires. It also demonstrates the ambiguity that exists between the noble colonial identity, which encourages detachment from the metropolis, and the elite identity, which, on the contrary, brings the Canadian nobles back to Europe and the characteristics of its elite
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