182,078 research outputs found

    Protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating self-help email messages for sub-threshold depression: the Mood Memos study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Sub-threshold depression is common, impairs functioning, and increases the risk of developing major depression. Although psychological treatments have been investigated for sub-threshold depression, they are costly. A less costly alternative could be an educational health promotion campaign about effective self-help for depression symptoms. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of a low-cost email-based mental health promotion campaign in changing self-help behaviour and preventing more severe depression in adults with sub-threshold depression.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>The project is a randomised controlled trial of an automated preventive email-intervention aimed at people with sub-threshold depression. Adults aged 18+ with sub-threshold depression (as measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), who are not already receiving professional treatment for depression, are eligible for admission to the study. Internet users will sign up via the study website <url>http://www.moodmemos.com</url> and be randomly allocated to receive emails twice weekly for six weeks containing either self-help coping advice or general information about depression as a control. Outcomes will be assessed at the start, midpoint, and end of the intervention, as well as six months later. Outcomes assessed include symptoms, incidence of major depression, psychological distress, social and occupational functioning, coping strategies, and coping self-efficacy. The primary hypothesis is that the Mood Memo emails containing coping strategies will reduce depression symptoms and be better at preventing major depression than the control emails that contain general information about depression.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>Promotion of actions an individual can take to prevent physical disease is a technique often used in public health. This study applies this approach to mental health, and explores whether a low-cost, easily disseminated email-based campaign can improve self-help coping behaviour and prevent depression in adults with sub-threshold depression.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): <a href="http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12609000925246.aspx">ACTRN12609000925246</a></p

    Parental Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Problems: An Examination of Child, Family, and Demographic Influences

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    The present study examined family, child, and demographic influences on parents\u27 decisions to carry out efforts to reduce their child\u27s anxiety problems. The current study analyzed data from 363 families who participated in the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), a longitudinal study of social development. When children were 11 years old, parents were asked whether they had become concerned enough about their child\u27Âs anxiety in the last two years to begin an active campaign to help their child. Unadaptable (inhibited) child temperament, socioeconomic status, family stress, child gender, ethnicity, and mother-rated anxiety/depression from the Child Behavior Checklist served as predictors of parents\u27 decision to mount a campaign. Predictors were measured at least one year before parents reported on their concerns about their children\u27Âs anxiety. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that high levels of stress and unadaptability in infancy, as well as low SES were all associated with an increased probability that a mother would start a campaign to reduce her child\u27Âs anxiety problems. However, once the effect of child anxiety/depression on mother\u27Âs concern was statistically controlled, none of these variables were significantly associated with mothers\u27Â campaign efforts. Moderating effects of the child and family variables on the association between child anxiety/depression levels and mothers\u27ÃÂÃÂ decision to mount a campaign were also examined. Child gender was the only variable found to increase parental sensitivity to child anxiety/depression. The association between child anxiety/depression and motherÂs\u27 concerns/campaigns efforts was stronger for girls than for boys. The results of this study suggest that child and family influences (e.g., stress, SES) on parents\u27decisions to respond to child anxiety may be explained by differences in child anxiety levels. In addition, the findings indicate that parents are more sensitive to levels of anxiety and depression in their daughters than in their sons.https://ecommons.udayton.edu/stander_posters/1090/thumbnail.jp

    Voices from D-Day, June 6, 1944

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    Seventy years on from D-Day, we still marvel at the stoic heroism of the men who contributed to the success of what remains the greatest amphibious invasion in the history of warfare. The Normandy campaign would, in one way or another, prove a pivotal moment in the ongoing world war. A disaster in the campaign to liberate France would set back Allied hopes for crushing Nazism in Western Europe. It would also fray the alliance with the Soviet Union that was essential to defeating Hitler’s forces. By contrast, success would mark not just the end of the beginning of the conflict, but the beginning of the end. There are as many Normandy campaign stories, from both sides, as there are participants. But absent some formal way of collecting them, those stories would disappear with the generation that made this history. That is where oral history comes in. Since the early 1990s, Gettysburg College has done its share to create an archive of World War II memories, covering the gamut of life experience of a generation that grew to maturity during the Great Depression and World War II. Launched in a Historical Methods course in 1991, and continuing into the present day, the World War II oral history project has collected nearly 700 oral histories from the home and battle fronts and places in between. Recordings and transcriptions of each of these interviews are available in Special Collections at Musselman Library. At some point, if resources are sufficient, they will be digitized and available online. [excerpt]https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/libexhibits/1003/thumbnail.jp

    Let’s chat: Willingness to communicate and the development of a destigmatizing campaign

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    Abstract Low treatment rates for depression are commonly observed among young adults of typical college age in particular. Fear of social judgement makes stigma a commonly identified barrier to depression treatment. What is unclear is how the willingness of university students to communicate about depression may influence or be influenced by stigma. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model, the present thesis investigates the stigma attitudes of students toward depression, as well as their willingness to communicate about depression. To do this, an online survey was conducted with depression stigma scales and adapted willingness to communicate (WTC) scales. Results indicate that students are more willing to talk with friends about depression than they are with family about depression or with mental healthcare providers, and that students perceive greater stigma in others than they report having themselves. Also, with the exception of perceived stigma, each of the WTC and stigma scales and subscales were correlated with and predicted each other, suggesting a reciprocal relationship of influence between WTC and stigma. Focus groups were conducted which supplemented and added to the quantitative findings with themes of WTC with an intimate few, perceived stigma, help-provision desires, and perceived public ignorance of severity. These themes contributed to the development of campaign materials intended to encourage more frequent and destigmatizing conversations about depression among college students. Campaign message-related themes of preference for explicit expressions of relevancy and privacy concerns contributed to message revision. The study concludes with recommendations for further research and advocacy work

    A Mass Media Campaign to Promote Divorce Adjustment

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    Introduction. This study produced and evaluated a mass media campaign designed to promote emotional adjustment to divorce. Hypotheses. (a) Sending a promotional newsletter to divorced persons will increase their reported utilization of the campaign. (b) Divorced persons who report heavy utilization of the campaign will report greater emotional improvement than divorced persons who report light or no utilization of the campaign. Method. A field experiment was conducted in rural northern Utah. The names of all recently (less than 12 months) divorced persons were obtained from the county clerk and randomly divided into an experimental group, who received a newsletter promoting the media campaign, and a control group. The five-week media campaign included 10 radio shows, 16 newspaper articles, and 29 television shows. After the campaign, 101 subjects were interviewed regarding their media use. They also completed a posttest and retrospective pretest of anxiety, depression, hostility (measured by the Symptom Check List 90-R), and attachment. Results. The campaign was reportedly used by 77.2% of the subjects. Hypothesis 1 was weakly supported. Subjects who received the newsletter reported using statistically significantly more media events (X = 4.95) than subjects who did not receive the newsletter (X = 3.12). However, the percentage of variance in media use associated with newsletter receipt was only 3.2%. Hypothesis 2 was partially supported. Heavy campaign users (3+ events) reported statistically significantly greater improvements in anxiety, depression, and hostility (but not attachment) than light users (0-2 events). The percentage of variance in emotional improvements associated with media use ranged from 1 to 5%. Those who reportedly spent time with significant others after the divorce reported significantly greater emotional improvements than those who did not spend time with others. The highest degree of reported emotional improvement was reported by those who reported both heavy media use and time spent with significant others, while the lowest degree of emotional improvement was reported by subjects who reported little or no media use and no time spent with confidants

    Modelling soil dust aerosol in the Bodélé depression during the BoDEx campaign

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    We present regional model simulations of the dust emission events during the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx) that was carried out in February and March 2005 in Chad. A box model version of the dust emission model is used to test different input parameters for the emission model, and to compare the dust emissions computed with observed wind speeds to those calculated with wind speeds from the regional model simulation. While field observations indicate that dust production occurs via self-abrasion of saltating diatomite flakes in the Bodélé, the emission model based on the assumption of dust production by saltation and using observed surface wind speeds as input parameters reproduces observed dust optical thicknesses well. Although the peak wind speeds in the regional model underestimate the highest wind speeds occurring on 10–12 March 2005, the spatio-temporal evolution of the dust cloud can be reasonably well reproduced by this model. Dust aerosol interacts with solar and thermal radiation in the regional model; it is responsible for a decrease in maximum daytime temperatures by about 5 K at the beginning the dust storm on 10 March 2005. This direct radiative effect of dust aerosol accounts for about half of the measured temperature decrease compared to conditions on 8 March. Results from a global dust model suggest that the dust from the Bodélé is an important contributor to dust crossing the African Savannah region towards the Gulf of Guinea and the equatorial Atlantic, where it can contribute up to 40% to the dust optical thickness

    Evaluation of the Choose Life North Lanarkshire Awareness Programme: Final Report

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    The Centre for Men’s Health at Leeds Metropolitan University, with consultants from MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow, and Men’s Health Forum, Scotland (MHFS), were appointed to conduct the Choose Life (North Lanarkshire) evaluation, beginning in March 2011. The key evaluation questions are: 1. How has the social marketing approach to increase awareness of crisis service numbers and de-stigmatise understandings and attitudes about suicide worked? 2. Has the programme as implemented been effective? Which aspects of the programme have been particularly effective? 3. Has this programme been of benefit to the community, in particular young men aged 16-35? 4. What contribution has the community made to the effectiveness of the programme

    A Brief Survey of Public Knowledge and Stigma Towards Depression

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    The burden from depression is affected by the public\u27s beliefs, stigma, and resulting behavior. Lack of knowledge, misunderstanding, and stigma about depressed people and their surroundings are barriers to improving their mental health. This study aimed to examine public beliefs regarding depression, especially how to recognize depression, treatment, and stigma.A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to participants receiving an annual health checkup. We asked whether they agreed with four short sentences: "it is not necessary to worry about depression in a person behaving brightly" (misunderstanding about the behavior of depressed people), "rest is important for treating depression" (belief about the necessity of rest), "medicine is effective for treating depression" (belief about the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy) and "a weak personality causes depression" (stigma about the cause of depression). We also analyzed the association between these beliefs and factors such as health literacy, regularly visiting an outpatient clinic, history of depression, and demographic variables.Among 1,085 respondents (75.0% response rate), 54.5%, 75.6%, 58.9%, and 70.8% responded appropriately to the "misunderstanding about the behavior of depressed people", "necessity of rest", "effectiveness of pharmacotherapy", and "stigma about the cause of depression" items, respectively. Regarding stigma about the cause of depression, 30.7% of respondents agreed that a weak personality caused depression. Female sex and younger age group were associated with appropriate answers. Health literacy was only associated with appropriate beliefs about the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy.Thirty percent of participants had the stigmatizing belief that a weak personality causes depression and only 58.9% believed in the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for depression. Over 70% understood the necessity of rest and knew that depression is possible in those who act brighter. General health literacy alone might not improve knowledge and beliefs about depression. An educational intervention or campaign to reduce stigma toward depression and improve knowledge about the treatment of depression is needed

    Depression in Low-Income Adolescents: Guidelines for School-Based Depression Intervention Programs

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    Adolescent depression is growing in interest to clinicians. In addition to the estimated 2 million cases of adolescent major depressive episodes each year, depressive symptoms in youth have become indicators of mental health complications later in life. Studies indicate that being low-income is a risk factor for depression and that socioeconomically disadvantaged teenagers are more than twice as likely to develop mental illnesses. Only an estimated 1 in 4 children with mental illnesses receive adequate help and 80% of these resources come through schools. Thus, this study focuses on establishing the importance of depression intervention programs in low-income high schools and designing novel guidelines for effective protocols. A compilation of expert opinion on depression screening, education, and treatment, as well as analysis of previously implemented school screening and awareness programs, are examined in order to understand key strategies. The results of this study finds that a multi-layered approach with screening, universal education, and interventions for those identified as being high-risk is most effective in addressing the mental health needs of low-income adolescents. To ensure feasibility and efficacy, screening should be conducted with a modified PHQ-a test and followed-up by timely clinical interviews by school psychologists. All students should receive universal depression education curriculum consisting of principles such as: depression literacy, asset theory, and promotion of help-seeking behaviors. Extending universal education to teachers would also be beneficial in promoting mental health communication and positive classroom environments. It is vital that those screening positive for depression or suicidality receive protocols geared towards high-risk youths, such as group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and facilitated mental health center referrals based on individual severity. Effectively addressing depression in school systems requires integration of mental health promotion, depression prevention, and psychotherapy—by taking this multidimensional approach, public health officials and school administrations can ensure that adequate resources are directed to those most in need

    Your Life is Waiting! : Symbolic Meanings in Direct-to-Consumer Antidepressant Advertising

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    This semiotic analysis demonstrates how pharmaceutical companies strategically frame depression within the hotly contested terrain of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising. The study tracks regulation of the pharmaceutical industry, relative to DTC advertising, including recent industry codes of conduct. Focusing on the antidepressant category, and its three major brands—Paxil (GlaxoSmithKline), Prozac (Eli Lilly), and Zoloft (Pfizer)—this comparative study analyzes 7 years of print advertising following deregulation in 1997. The authors glean themes from within the advertising texts, across the drug category and within individual-brand campaigns. The findings indicate that DTC advertising of antidepressants frames depression within the biochemical model of causation, privileges benefits over risks, fails to adequately educate consumers, and frames depression as a female condition. The authors close with commentary on the potential implications, with particular focus on the new codes of conduct, and offer suggestions for future research