387 research outputs found

    Worldwide tests of generic attractants, a promising tool for early detection of non-native cerambycid species

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    A large proportion of the insects which have invaded new regions and countries are emerging species, being found for the first time outside their native range. Being able to detect such species upon arrival at ports of entry before they establish in non-native countries is an urgent challenge. The deployment of traps baited with broad-spectrum semiochemical lures at ports-of-entry and other high-risk sites could be one such early detection tool. Rapid progress in the identification of semiochemicals for cerambycid beetles during the last 15 years has revealed that aggregation-sex pheromones and sex pheromones are often conserved at global levels for genera, tribes or subfamilies of the Cerambycidae. This possibly allows the development of generic attractants which attract multiple species simultaneously, especially when such pheromones are combined into blends. Here, we present the results of a worldwide field trial programme conducted during 2018-2021, using traps baited with a standardised 8-pheromone blend, usually com-plemented with plant volatiles. A total of 1308 traps were deployed at 302 sites covering simultaneously or sequentially 13 European countries, 10 Chinese provinces and some regions of the USA, Canada, Australia, Russia (Siberia) and the Caribbean (Martinique). We intended to test the following hypotheses: 1) if a species is regularly trapped in significant numbers by the blend on a continent, it increases the prob-ability that it can be detected when it arrives in other countries/continents and 2) if the blend exerts an effective, generic attraction to multiple species, it is likely that previously unknown and unexpected spe-cies can be captured due to the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures within related taxa. A total of 78,321 longhorned beetles were trapped, representing 376 species from eight subfamilies, with 84 species captured in numbers greater than 50 individuals. Captures comprised 60 tribes, with 10 tribes including more than nine species trapped on different continents. Some invasive species were captured in both the native and invaded continents. This demonstrates the potential of multipheromone lures as ef-fective tools for the detection of 'unexpected' cerambycid invaders, accidentally translocated outside their native ranges. Adding new pheromones with analogous well-conserved motifs is discussed, as well as the limitations of using such blends, especially for some cerambycid taxa which may be more attracted by the trap colour or other characteristics rather than to the chemical blend

    A brief survey of research on Pine Wilt Disease under various climatic conditions around the globe

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    Pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes significant losses in coniferous forests in eastern Asia, including Japan, China, and South Korea, as well as western Europe, including Portugal. The results of the research papers given at the International Symposium on Pine Wilt Disease (IUFRO Working Party Meeting 4.04.03) in Nanjing, China, in July 2009 are summarised in this article. The basic themes discussed included pine wilt disease (PWD), the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and other PWN-associated microorganisms that play a significant role in PWD, such as bacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas fluorescens). The majority of the papers are based on PWD-PWN research in East Asia and Russia. The following are some of the specific topics covered: 1) fundamental concepts of PWD development, 2) pathogenicity, 3) host-parasite relationships, including histopathology of diseased conifers and the role of toxins from bacteria-nematode ecto-symbionts, 4) PWN life cycle and transmission, 5) B. xylophilus dissemination models, 6) associations (with other nematodes), 7) diagnostics, 8) quarantine and control of the PWN and 9) biocontrol of the PWN.Keywords: Review; A brief survey of research on Pine Wilt Diseas

    Pheromone-based monitoring of invasive alien insects along the border of Finland and Russia ‚Äď methods and unintentionally caught species

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    Global trade provides pathways for the spread of invasive species. To tackle the threat, many countries have designated surveys that are typically conducted at the probable ports of entry. For Finland, the most north-eastern region of the European Union (EU), such site is the border with Russia and the imports of coniferous roundwood and wood chips. In this paper, we describe the monitoring systems based on pheromone-trapping for three EU-wide quarantine pests: Dendrolimus sibiricus, Polygraphus proximus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. We also list the non-target species caught in an exploratory survey using pheromone traps. During the three years of survey, no quarantine pests were detected, but 30 other species of insects were caught. Therefore, the monitoring ‚Äď despite not detecting the target pests ‚Äď provided information about the abundance of other species. As insect diversity reflects the status of the surrounding environment, the value of such data should be increased via co-operation among research institutes

    How did Bursaphelenchus nematodes acquire a specific relationship with their beetle vectors, Monochamus?

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    For insect-borne pathogens, phoretic ability is important not only to spread more widely and efficiently but also to evolve virulence. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, is transmitted by the cerambycid beetle Monochamus alternatus, which is associated with pine tree host. Their specific phoretic ability to appropriate vectors depending on their life cycle is critical for efficient transfer to the correct host and is expected to enhance virulence. We evaluated how B. xylophilus acquired a specific relationship with M. alternatus with a focus on Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis, a close relative of B. xylophilus that has evolved a relationship with a cerambycid beetle vector. Bursaphelenchus okinawaensis has a single dispersal stage (dauer) larva (third-stage dispersal [DIII] larva), whereas B. xylophilus has two distinct dispersal stages (DIII and fourth-stage dispersal [DIV] larva). Also, the dauer formation in B. okinawaensis is not completely dependent on its beetle vector, whereas DIV larvae of B. xylophilus are induced by volatile from the beetle vector. We investigated the induction conditions of dauer larvae in B. okinawaensis and compared to with B. xylophilus. The dauer percentages of B. okinawaensis significantly increased when the nematode population on the plate increased or when we propagated the nematodes with a crude extract of cultured nematodes, which likely contained dauer-inducing pheromones. In addition, dauer formation tended to be enhanced by the crude extract at high temperatures. Furthermore, when we propagated the nematodes with M. alternatus pupae until the beetles eclosed, B. okinawaensis significantly developed into dauer larvae. However, only 1.3% of dauer larvae were successfully transferred to M. alternatus, the rate lower than that of B. xylophilus. DIII and DIV of B. xylophilus were induced by increasing the nematode population and the presence of the beetle vector, respectively. These results suggest that B. okinawaensis has acquired specificity for the cerambycid beetle through dauer formation, which is efficiently induced in the presence of the beetle, and the DIV larval stage, exclusive to the xylophilus group, may be crucial for high transfer ability to the beetle vector

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia

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    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in association with the pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus galloprovincialis) during the implementation and testing of cross traps with insect attractants as an efficient tool for detection survey for pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia in 2017 and 2018, respectively. This nematode was characterized by morphological, morphometric and molecular features. This is the first report of B. mucronatus in association with a M. galloprovincialis in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Georgia

    Overvåking- og kartleggingsprogram for furuvednematode og Monochamus 2022

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    Overv√•kingsprogrammet i 2022 omfattet unders√łkelse for tilstedev√¶relse av furuvednematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) i hogstavfall fra furu og i furubukker av slekten Monochamus. I OK-programmets delaktivitet som omfattet kartlegging av furuvednematode i hogstavfall, ble det tatt 401 flispr√łver fra hogstavfall og vindfall av furu (Pinus sylvestris) som hadde tegn p√• angrep av furubukker i slekten Monochamus. Pr√łvene ble tatt i Innlandet, Vestfold og Telemark, og Viken. Flispr√łvene ble inkubert ved +25¬įC i to uker f√łr nematoder ble ekstrahert med Baermann-trakt og unders√łkt i mikroskop. Furuvednematoden B. xylophilus ble ikke p√•vist, men den naturlig forekommende arten Bursaphelenchus mucronatus kolymensis ble oppdaget i 16 flispr√łver. Siden overv√•kingen av furuvednematode startet i 2000, har alle de analyserte flispr√łvene, totalt 8924, v√¶rt negative for furuvednematode. I OK-programmets delaktivitet som omfattet kartlegging av furuvednematode i furubukker, ble feller med attraktanter for fangst av voksne, flygende furubukker satt opp i Agder, Telemark, Viken (√ėstfold og Akershus), Hedmark og Tr√łndelag. Billene ble kuttet i biter og ekstrahert med en modifisert Baermann-trakt. Suspensjonen fra ekstraksjonene ble unders√łkt i mikroskop for forekomst av Bursaphelenchus spp. Ingen furuvednematoder ble p√•vist i de 54 unders√łkte billene. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus kolymensis ble ikke heller oppdaget.Overv√•king- og kartleggingsprogram for furuvednematode og Monochamus 2022publishedVersio

    New Records of Wood- and Bark-Inhabiting Nematodes from Woody Plants with a Description of <i>Bursaphelenchus zvyagintsevi</i> sp. n. (Aphelenchoididae: Parasitaphelenchinae) from Russia

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    Wood- and bark-inhabiting parasitic nematodes are of great economic importance. Nematodes can cause wilt diseases in conifers and deciduous trees. In 2014‚Äď2022, during nematology surveys conducted in different regions of Russia and Belarus, adults and dauer juveniles of nematodes were collected from wood, bark and beetle vectors. Using traditional morphological taxonomic characters integrated with molecular criteria, we identified in the studied samples the following nematode species: Aphelenchoides heidelbergi, Bursaphelenchus eremus, B. fraudulentus, B. michalskii, B. mucronatus, B. willibaldi, Deladenus posteroporus, Diplogasteroides nix and Laimaphelenchus hyrcanus, several unidentified species: Aphelenchoides sp.1 and sp.2, Cryptaphelenchus sp.1, sp.2 and sp.3, Laimaphelenchus sp.1, Micoletzkya sp.1, Parasitaphelenchus sp.1, Parasitorhabditis sp.1, three unidentified tylenchid nematodes and a new species, Bursaphelenchus zvyagintsevi sp.n. Morphological descriptions and molecular characterization are provided for B. zvyagintsevi sp. n. belonging to the Abietinus group and B. michalskii belonging to the Eggersi group. Findings of Aphelenchoides heidelbergi, Bursaphelenchus eremus, B. michalskii, Deladenus posteroporus, Diplogasteroides nix and Laimaphelenchus hyrcanus are new records for Russia. Phylogenetic positions of studied species were reconstructed using D2‚ÄďD3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The data obtained in this study may help to detect the refugia of opportunistic plant pests and find possible native biocontrol nematode agents of insect vectors causing diseases

    Worldwide tests of generic attractants, a promising tool for early detection of non-native cerambycid species

    Get PDF
    A large proportion of the insects which have invaded new regions and countries are emerging species, being found for the first time outside their native range. Being able to detect such species upon arrival at ports of entry before they establish in non-native countries is an urgent challenge. The deployment of traps baited with broad-spectrum semiochemical lures at ports-of-entry and other high-risk sites could be one such early detection tool. Rapid progress in the identification of semiochemicals for cerambycid beetles during the last 15 years has revealed that aggregation-sex pheromones and sex pheromones are often conserved at global levels for genera, tribes or subfamilies of the Cerambycidae. This possibly allows the development of generic attractants which attract multiple species simultaneously, especially when such pheromones are combined into blends. Here, we present the results of a worldwide field trial programme conducted during 2018-2021, using traps baited with a standardised 8-pheromone blend, usually complemented with plant volatiles. A total of 1308 traps were deployed at 302 sites covering simultaneously or sequentially 13 European countries, 10 Chinese provinces and some regions of the USA, Canada, Australia, Russia (Siberia) and the Caribbean (Martinique). We intended to test the following hypotheses: 1) if a species is regularly trapped in significant numbers by the blend on a continent, it increases the probability that it can be detected when it arrives in other countries/continents and 2) if the blend exerts an effective, generic attraction to multiple species, it is likely that previously unknown and unexpected species can be captured due to the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures within related taxa. A total of 78,321 longhorned beetles were trapped, representing 376 species from eight subfamilies, with 84 species captured in numbers greater than 50 individuals. Captures comprised 60 tribes, with 10 tribes including more than nine species trapped on different continents. Some invasive species were captured in both the native and invaded continents. This demonstrates the potential of multipheromone lures as effective tools for the detection of 'unexpected' cerambycid invaders, accidentally translocated outside their native ranges. Adding new pheromones with analogous well-conserved motifs is discussed, as well as the limitations of using such blends, especially for some cerambycid taxa which may be more attracted by the trap colour or other characteristics rather than to the chemical blend.O

    New Records of Wood- and Bark-Inhabiting Nematodes from Woody Plants with a Description of Bursaphelenchus zvyagintsevi sp. n. (Aphelenchoididae: Parasitaphelenchinae) from Russia

    No full text
    Wood- and bark-inhabiting parasitic nematodes are of great economic importance. Nematodes can cause wilt diseases in conifers and deciduous trees. In 2014&ndash;2022, during nematology surveys conducted in different regions of Russia and Belarus, adults and dauer juveniles of nematodes were collected from wood, bark and beetle vectors. Using traditional morphological taxonomic characters integrated with molecular criteria, we identified in the studied samples the following nematode species: Aphelenchoides heidelbergi, Bursaphelenchus eremus, B. fraudulentus, B. michalskii, B. mucronatus, B. willibaldi, Deladenus posteroporus, Diplogasteroides nix and Laimaphelenchus hyrcanus, several unidentified species: Aphelenchoides sp.1 and sp.2, Cryptaphelenchus sp.1, sp.2 and sp.3, Laimaphelenchus sp.1, Micoletzkya sp.1, Parasitaphelenchus sp.1, Parasitorhabditis sp.1, three unidentified tylenchid nematodes and a new species, Bursaphelenchus zvyagintsevi sp.n. Morphological descriptions and molecular characterization are provided for B. zvyagintsevi sp. n. belonging to the Abietinus group and B. michalskii belonging to the Eggersi group. Findings of Aphelenchoides heidelbergi, Bursaphelenchus eremus, B. michalskii, Deladenus posteroporus, Diplogasteroides nix and Laimaphelenchus hyrcanus are new records for Russia. Phylogenetic positions of studied species were reconstructed using D2&ndash;D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The data obtained in this study may help to detect the refugia of opportunistic plant pests and find possible native biocontrol nematode agents of insect vectors causing diseases

    Skogens helsetilstand i Norge. Resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i 2022

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    Skogens helsetilstand p√•virkes i stor grad av klima og v√¶rforhold, enten direkte ved t√łrke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet p√•virker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede √łkningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gj√łr invaderende skadegj√łrere, b√•de allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i n√¶r framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeoverv√•kingen i Norge i 2022 og trender over tid for f√łlgende temaer: (i) Landsrepresentativ skogoverv√•king; (ii) Intensiv skogoverv√•king; (iii) Overv√•king av bj√łrkem√•lere i Troms og Finnmark; (iv) Barkbilleoverv√•kingen; (v) Furuvednematode; (vi) Askeskuddsyke; (vii) Andre spesielle skogskader i 2022
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