143,889 research outputs found

    Bounded Model Checking for Probabilistic Programs

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    In this paper we investigate the applicability of standard model checking approaches to verifying properties in probabilistic programming. As the operational model for a standard probabilistic program is a potentially infinite parametric Markov decision process, no direct adaption of existing techniques is possible. Therefore, we propose an on-the-fly approach where the operational model is successively created and verified via a step-wise execution of the program. This approach enables to take key features of many probabilistic programs into account: nondeterminism and conditioning. We discuss the restrictions and demonstrate the scalability on several benchmarks

    Bounded LTL Model Checking with Stable Models

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    In this paper bounded model checking of asynchronous concurrent systems is introduced as a promising application area for answer set programming. As the model of asynchronous systems a generalisation of communicating automata, 1-safe Petri nets, are used. It is shown how a 1-safe Petri net and a requirement on the behaviour of the net can be translated into a logic program such that the bounded model checking problem for the net can be solved by computing stable models of the corresponding program. The use of the stable model semantics leads to compact encodings of bounded reachability and deadlock detection tasks as well as the more general problem of bounded model checking of linear temporal logic. Correctness proofs of the devised translations are given, and some experimental results using the translation and the Smodels system are presented.Comment: 32 pages, to appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programmin

    Incremental bounded model checking for embedded software

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    Program analysis is on the brink of mainstream usage in embedded systems development. Formal verification of behavioural requirements, finding runtime errors and test case generation are some of the most common applications of automated verification tools based on bounded model checking (BMC). Existing industrial tools for embedded software use an off-the-shelf bounded model checker and apply it iteratively to verify the program with an increasing number of unwindings. This approach unnecessarily wastes time repeating work that has already been done and fails to exploit the power of incremental SAT solving. This article reports on the extension of the software model checker CBMC to support incremental BMC and its successful integration with the industrial embedded software verification tool BTC EMBEDDED TESTER. We present an extensive evaluation over large industrial embedded programs, mainly from the automotive industry. We show that incremental BMC cuts runtimes by one order of magnitude in comparison to the standard non-incremental approach, enabling the application of formal verification to large and complex embedded software. We furthermore report promising results on analysing programs with arbitrary loop structure using incremental BMC, demonstrating its applicability and potential to verify general software beyond the embedded domain

    Linear Encodings of Bounded LTL Model Checking

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    We consider the problem of bounded model checking (BMC) for linear temporal logic (LTL). We present several efficient encodings that have size linear in the bound. Furthermore, we show how the encodings can be extended to LTL with past operators (PLTL). The generalised encoding is still of linear size, but cannot detect minimal length counterexamples. By using the virtual unrolling technique minimal length counterexamples can be captured, however, the size of the encoding is quadratic in the specification. We also extend virtual unrolling to Buchi automata, enabling them to accept minimal length counterexamples. Our BMC encodings can be made incremental in order to benefit from incremental SAT technology. With fairly small modifications the incremental encoding can be further enhanced with a termination check, allowing us to prove properties with BMC. Experiments clearly show that our new encodings improve performance of BMC considerably, particularly in the case of the incremental encoding, and that they are very competitive for finding bugs. An analysis of the liveness-to-safety transformation reveals many similarities to the BMC encodings in this paper. Using the liveness-to-safety translation with BDD-based invariant checking results in an efficient method to find shortest counterexamples that complements the BMC-based approach.Comment: Final version for Logical Methods in Computer Science CAV 2005 special issu

    Comparing BDD and SAT based techniques for model checking Chaum's Dining Cryptographers Protocol

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    We analyse different versions of the Dining Cryptographers protocol by means of automatic verification via model checking. Specifically we model the protocol in terms of a network of communicating automata and verify that the protocol meets the anonymity requirements specified. Two different model checking techniques (ordered binary decision diagrams and SAT-based bounded model checking) are evaluated and compared to verify the protocols

    Model checking Branching-Time Properties of Multi-Pushdown Systems is Hard

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    We address the model checking problem for shared memory concurrent programs modeled as multi-pushdown systems. We consider here boolean programs with a finite number of threads and recursive procedures. It is well-known that the model checking problem is undecidable for this class of programs. In this paper, we investigate the decidability and the complexity of this problem under the assumption of bounded context-switching defined by Qadeer and Rehof, and of phase-boundedness proposed by La Torre et al. On the model checking of such systems against temporal logics and in particular branching time logics such as the modal μ\mu-calculus or CTL has received little attention. It is known that parity games, which are closely related to the modal μ\mu-calculus, are decidable for the class of bounded-phase systems (and hence for bounded-context switching as well), but with non-elementary complexity (Seth). A natural question is whether this high complexity is inevitable and what are the ways to get around it. This paper addresses these questions and unfortunately, and somewhat surprisingly, it shows that branching model checking for MPDSs is inherently an hard problem with no easy solution. We show that parity games on MPDS under phase-bounding restriction is non-elementary. Our main result shows that model checking a kk context bounded MPDS against a simple fragment of CTL, consisting of formulas that whose temporal operators come from the set {\EF, \EX}, has a non-elementary lower bound

    Bounded transaction model checking

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    technical reportIndustrial cache coherence protocol models often have too many reachable states, preventing full reachability analysis even for small model instances (number of processors, addresses, etc.). Several partial search debugging methods are, therefore, employed, including lossy state compression using hash compaction, and bounded model checking (BMC, or equivalently, depth-bounded search). We show that instead of a BMC approach, a bounded transaction approach is much more effective for debugging. This is because of the fact that the basic unit of activity in a cache coherence protocol is that of a transaction - e.g., a complete causal cycle of actions beginning with a node making a request for a line and obtaining the line. The reduced effectiveness of BMC mainly stems from the fact that by limiting only the search depth, it cannot be guaranteed that complete transactions get selected, or that the right kind maximal number of interacting transactions. Thus, instead of bounded model-checking, which explores all possible interleavings in BFS, we propose a bounded transaction model-checking approach for debugging cache coherence protocols, where the criterion is to allow a certain number of transactions chosen from a set of potentially interfering set of transactions, to be explored. We have built a bounded transaction version for the Murphi model checker and shown that it can find seeded bugs in protocols far more effectively, especially when full BFS runs out of memory and misses these bugs. We compare our work with similar ideas - such as debugging communicating push-down systems[1] by bounding the number of interleavings (a similar idea, but different in detail)

    Concurrent Bounded Model Checking

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    The Definitive Version can be found in the ACM Digital Library here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2693208.2693240issue_date: January 2015 numpages: 5 acmid: 2693240 keywords: Bounded Model Checking, Concurrency, Symbolic Executionissue_date: January 2015 numpages: 5 acmid: 2693240 keywords: Bounded Model Checking, Concurrency, Symbolic Executionissue_date: January 2015 numpages: 5 acmid: 2693240 keywords: Bounded Model Checking, Concurrency, Symbolic Executio
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