74,098 research outputs found

    Transient Local Bone Remodeling Effects of rhBMP-2 in an Ovine Interbody Spine Fusion Model

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    Background: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a powerful osteoinductive morphogen capable of stimulating the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the site of implantation and inducing the proliferation and differentiation of these MSCs into osteoblasts. Vertebral end-plate and vertebral body resorption has been reported after interbody fusion with high doses of rhBMP-2. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2 rhBMP-2 doses on peri-implant bone resorption and bone remodeling at 7 time points in an end-plate-sparing ovine interbody fusion model. Methods: Twenty-one female sheep underwent an end-plate-sparing discectomy followed by interbody fusion at L2-L3 and L4-L5 using a custom polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interbody fusion device. The PEEK interbody device was filled with 1 of 2 different doses of rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS): 0.13 mg (1路) or 0.90 mg (7路). Bone remodeling and interbody fusion were assessed via high-resolution radiography and histological analyses at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks postoperatively. Results: Peri-implant bone resorption peaked between 3 and 8 weeks in both the 1路 and the 7路 rhBMP-2/ACS-dose group. Osteoclastic activity and corresponding peri-implant bone resorption was dose-dependent, with moderate-tomarked resorption at the 7路-dose level and less resorption at the 1路-dose level. Both dose (p \u3c 0.0007) and time (p \u3c 0.0025) affected bone resorption significantly. Transient bone-resorption areas were fully healed by 12 weeks. Osseous bridging was seen at all but 1 spinal level at 12 and at 20 weeks. Conclusions: In the ovine end-plate-sparing interbody fusion model, rhBMP-2 dose-dependent osteoclastic resorption is a transient phenomenon that peaks at 4 weeks postoperatively. Clinical Relevance: Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved rhBMP-2 concentration and matching the volume of rhBMP-2/ACS with the volume of desired bone formation within the interbody construct may limit the occurrence of transient bone resorption

    Adaptive bone-remodeling theory applied to prosthetic-design analysis

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    The subject of this article is the development and application of computer-simulation methods to predict stress-related adaptive bone remodeling, in accordance with 鈥榃olff's Law鈥. These models are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) in combination with numerical formulations of adaptive bone-remodeling theories.\ud \ud In the adaptive remodeling models presented, the Strain Energy Density (SED) is used as a feed-back control variable to determine shape or bone density adaptations to alternative functional requirements, whereby homeostatic SED distribution is assumed as the remodeling objective.\ud \ud These models are applied to investigate the relation between 鈥榮tress shielding鈥 and bone resorption in the femoral cortex around intramedullary prostheses, such as used in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). It is shown that the amount of bone resorption depends mainly on the rigidity and the bonding characteristics of the implant. Homeostatic SED can be obtained when the resorption process occurs at the periosteal surface, rather than inside the cortex, provided that the stem is adequately flexible

    p38伪 MAPK regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors and bone remodeling in an aging-dependent manner.

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    Bone mass is determined by the balance between bone formation, carried out by mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts, and bone resorption, carried out by monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Here we investigated the potential roles of p38 MAPKs, which are activated by growth factors and cytokines including RANKL and BMPs, in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by ablating p38伪 MAPK in LysM+monocytes. p38伪 deficiency promoted monocyte proliferation but regulated monocyte osteoclastic differentiation in a cell-density dependent manner, with proliferating p38伪-/- cultures showing increased differentiation. While young mutant mice showed minor increase in bone mass, 6-month-old mutant mice developed osteoporosis, associated with an increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption and an increase in the pool of monocytes. Moreover, monocyte-specific p38伪 ablation resulted in a decrease in bone formation and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, likely due to decreased expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2. The expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2 was positively regulated by the p38 MAPK-Creb axis in osteoclasts, with the promoters of PDGF-AA and BMP2 having Creb binding sites. These findings uncovered the molecular mechanisms by which p38伪 MAPK regulates osteoclastogenesis and coordinates osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    Effects of material properties of femoral hip components on bone remodeling

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    Bone loss around femoral hip stems is one of the problems threatening the long-term fixation of uncemented stems. Many believe that this phenomenon is caused by reduced stresses in the bone (stress shielding). In the present study the mechanical consequences of different femoral stem materials were investigated using adaptive bone remodeling theory in combination with the finite element method. Bone-remodeling in the femur around the implant and interface stresses between bone and implant were investigated for fully bonded femoral stems. Cemented stems (cobalt-chrome or titanium alloy) caused less bone resorption and lower interface stresses than uncemented stems made from the same materials. The range of the bone resorption predicted in the simulation models was from 23% in the proximal medial cortex surrounding the cemented titanium alloy stem to 76% in the proximal medial cortex around the uncemented cobalt-chrome stem. Very little bone resorption was predicted around a flexible, uncemented iso-elastic stem, but the proximal interface stresses increased drastically relative to the stiffer uncemented stems composed of cobalt-chrome or titanium alloy. However, the proximal interface stress peak was reduced and shifted during the adaptive remodeling process. The latter was found particularly in the stiffer uncemented cobalt-chrome-molybdenum implant and less for the flexible isoelastic implant

    Short-term Osteoclastic Activity Induced by Locally High Concentrations of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein鈥2 in a Cancellous Bone Environment

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    Study Design. An experimental study investigating osteoclastic activity induced by rhBMP-2 in sheep. Objective. To examine the effects of increasing local rhBMP-2 concentration on osteoclastic response and peri-implant bone resorption. Summary of Background Data. Level I clinical studies have established the safe and effective volume and concentration of rhBMP-2 delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge. However, peri-implant bone resorption appearing as decreased mineral density has been observed radiographically in rare instances after implantation of rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS). Methods. Bilateral corticocancellous defects were created in the distal femora of 30 adult sheep. Combinations of rhBMP-2/ACS implant volume (V) (1V = normal fill or 2V = overfilled) and rhBMP-2 solution concentration (猡) (1 猡 normal concentration or 3.5 猡 = hyperconcentrated) resulted in local rhBMP-2 concentrations of 0猡, 1猡, 2猡, 3.5猡, and 7猡 the estimated effective concentration for this model. Faxitron radiography, quantitative CT, histology, and quantitative histomorphometry were conducted in a blinded fashion to analyze the effect of the treatments. Results. At 1 week, the normal fill-normal concentration implants (1猡) produced the least transient osteoclastic activity resulting in limited peri-implant resorption. Overfilledhyperconcentrated implants (2猡, 3.5猡) demonstrated moderate resorption zones. Overfilled-hyperconcentrated implants (7猡) demonstrated extensive osteoclastic activity and marked resorption. Results at 4 and 8 weeks revealed dense osteoid and bone in the voids with progressive bony healing. Control defects showed no osteoclastic activity with little to no bony healing. Conclusion. Increasing the local rhBMP-2 concentration by overfilling the defect with rhBMP-2/ACS or hyper-concentrating the rhBMP-2 solution on the absorbable collagen sponge led to a concentration-dependent osteoclastic resorption of peri-implant bone. The osteoclastic effect was transient, and progressive healing took place over the 8-week survival period

    Quantitative analysis of bone reactions to relative motions at implant-bone interfaces

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    Connective soft tissues at the interface between implants and bone, such as in human joint replacements, can endanger the stability of the implant fixation. The potential of an implant to generate interface bone resorption and form soft tissue depends on many variables, including mechanical ones. These mechanical factors can be expressed in terms of relative motions between bone and implant at the interface or deformation of the interfacial material.\ud \ud The purpose of this investigation was to determine if interface debonding and subsequent relative interface motions can be responsible for interface degradation and soft tissue interposition as seen in experiments and clinical results. A finite element computer program was augmented with a mathematical description of interface debonding, dependent on interface stress criteria, and soft tissue interface interposition, dependent on relative interface motions. Three simplified models of orthopaedic implants were constructed: a cortical bone screw for fracture fixation plates, a femoral resurfacing prosthesis and a straight stem model, cemented in a bone. The predicted computer configurations were compared with clinical observations. The computer results showed how interface disruption and fibrous tissue interposition interrelate and possibly enhance each other, whereby a progressive development of the soft tissue layer can occur.\ud \ud Around the cortical bone screw, the predicted resorption patterns were relatively large directly under the screw head and showed a pivot point in the opposite cortex. The resurfacing cup model predicted some fibrous tissue formation under the medial and lateral cup rim, whereby the medial layer developed first because of higher initial interface stresses. The straight stem model predicted initial interface failure at the proximal parts. After proximal resorption and fibrous tissue interposition, the medial interface was completely disrupted and developed an interface layer. The distal and mid lateral side maintained within the strength criterion.\ud \ud Although the applied models were relatively simple, the results showed reasonable qualitative agreement with resorption patterns found in clinical studies concerning bone screws and the resurfacing cup. The hypothesis that interface debonding and subsequent relative (micro)motions could be responsible for bone resorption and fibrous tissue propagation is thereby sustained by the results

    Investigation of bone resorption within a cortical basic multicellular unit using a lattice-based computational model

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    In this paper we develop a lattice-based computational model focused on bone resorption by osteoclasts in a single cortical basic multicellular unit (BMU). Our model takes into account the interaction of osteoclasts with the bone matrix, the interaction of osteoclasts with each other, the generation of osteoclasts from a growing blood vessel, and the renewal of osteoclast nuclei by cell fusion. All these features are shown to strongly influence the geometrical properties of the developing resorption cavity including its size, shape and progression rate, and are also shown to influence the distribution, resorption pattern and trajectories of individual osteoclasts within the BMU. We demonstrate that for certain parameter combinations, resorption cavity shapes can be recovered from the computational model that closely resemble resorption cavity shapes observed from microCT imaging of human cortical bone.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures, 1 table. Revised version: paper entirely rewritten for a more biology-oriented readership. Technical points of model description now in Appendix. Addition of two new figures (Fig. 5 and Fig. 9) and removal of former Fig.

    Strontium ranelate: A novel mode of action leading to renewed bone quality

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    Various bone resorption inhibitors and bone stimulators have been shown to decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, there is still a need for agents promoting bone formation by inducing positive uncoupling between bone formation and bone resorption. In vitro studies have suggested that strontium ranelate enhances osteoblast cell replication and activity. Simultaneously, strontium ranelate dose-dependently inhibits osteoclast activity. In vivo studies indicate that strontium ranelate stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption and prevents bone loss and/or promotes bone gain. This positive uncoupling between bone formation and bone resorption results in bone gain and improvement in bone geometry and microarchitecture, without affecting the intrinsic bone tissue quality. Thus, all the determinants of bone strength are positively influenced. In conclusion, strontium ranelate, a new treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, acts through an innovative mode of action, both stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, resulting in the rebalancing of bone turnover in favor of bone formation. Strontium ranelate increases bone mass while preserving the bone mineralization process, resulting in improvement in bone strength and bone qualit

    Resorption controls bone anabolism driven by PTH receptor signaling in osteocytes

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    The contribution of remodeling-based bone formation coupled to osteoclast activity versus modeling-based bone formation that occurs independently of resorption, to the anabolic effect of PTH remains unclear. We addressed this question using transgenic mice with activated PTH receptor signaling in osteocytes that exhibit increased bone mass and remodeling, recognized skeletal effects of PTH elevation. Direct inhibition of bone formation was accomplished genetically by overexpressing the Wnt antagonist Sost/sclerostin; and resorption-dependent bone formation was inhibited pharmacologically with the bisphosphonate alendronate. We found that bone formation induced by osteocytic PTH receptor signaling on the periosteal surface depends on Wnt signaling but not on resorption. In contrast, bone formation on the endocortical surface results from a combination of Wnt-driven increased osteoblast number and resorption-dependent osteoblast activity. Moreover, elevated osteoclasts and intracortical/calvarial porosity is exacerbated by overexpressing Sost and reversed by blocking resorption. Furthermore, increased cancellous bone is abolished by Wnt inhibition but further increased by blocking resorption. Thus, resorption induced by PTH receptor signaling in osteocytes is critical for full anabolism in cortical bone, but tempers bone gain in cancellous bone. Dissecting underlying mechanisms of PTH receptor signaling would allow targeting actions in different bone compartments, enhancing the therapeutic potential of the pathway