57,459 research outputs found

    Fueling Incubation: Differential Use of Body Stores in Arctic and Temperate-breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis)

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    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores during incubation. Average daily body-mass loss was almost identical in the 2 temperate-breeding populations (17.0 g and 16.5 g in Baltic Sea and North Sea, respectively), whereas Arctic-breeding females lost significantly less (10.6 g day-1). Temperate-breeding females initiated incubation with body mass 125 g higher than that of Arctic breeders, but at the end of incubation, body mass was similar among the 3 populations, averaging 1,458 g. Body-mass loss during incubation amounted to 23% (North Sea), 22% (Baltic Sea), and 15% (Barents Sea). Fat mass, as measured by isotope dilution in a subsample of females, was consistently higher in North Sea than in Barents Sea birds, but both populations showed similar rates of fat-mass loss (9.4 g day-1, on average). By contrast, loss of fat-free mass (assumed to represent wet protein) amounted to 9.3 g day-1 in North Sea birds but only 1.5 g day-1 in Barents Sea birds. Energy content of 1 g utilized body mass was 21.1 kJ (North Sea) and 34.9 kJ (Barents Sea), which equates to 376 kJ day-1 and 415 kJ day-1 drawn from stored energy, respectively. We suggest that differences in nest-attendance and post-incubation demands are responsible for the differential use of body stores in temperate- and Arctic-breeding Barnacle Geese.

    When do beetles and bugs fly? A unified scheme for describing seasonal flight behaviour of highly dispersing primary aquatic insects

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    Many authors investigated the dispersal flight of aquatic insects, but the exact length of the seasonal flying periods and its main characteristics have not been determined. A wide spectrum of species must be investigated before drawing general conclusions on seasonal changes about dispersal flight. Seasonal dispersal flight of aquatic beetles and bugs were studied during a 30-week long monitoring period. Insects were attracted to highly polarizing horizontal shiny black plastic sheets. 90 species/taxa and more than 45 000 individuals were captured during the sampling period. Aquatic insects were rising into the air during all periods of the year (from April till October). We hypothesized that species or group of species can be characterized by different seasonal rhythms of their dispersal flight. A unified scheme was established based on seasonal dispersal activity of 45 species to assess the dispersal behaviour. Detailed information about seasonal dispersal of 22 more species, and seasonal dispersal pattern were predicted in cases of further 23 species. In all, three seasonal patterns and twelve sub-patterns were identified based on specific characteristics of flight. The scheme is widely and generally applicable to characterize the seasonal dispersal flight of primarily aquatic insects. To demonstrate this, we performed the classification on previously reported data. Both previous and current results of the flight dispersal studies can be classified in the scheme, and the results are comparable by using this unified categorization

    Catching and rearing postlarval cleaner shrimp for the aquarium trade: results from a WorldFish Center project in Solomon Islands

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    Between 1999 and 2003, the WorldFish Center in Solomon Islands conducted research into the feasibility of a new fishery based on the capture and culture of postlarval coral reef fish for the live fish trade. The work was carried out in two phases: a research phase from late 1999 to the end of 2002; and a “finetuning” phase in 2003. Most of the species were of value to the marine aquarium trade, with very few live reef food fish recorded. The most valuable ornamentals were the banded cleaner shrimp, Stenopus species. Cleaner shrimp were harvested using crest nets, the method being modified with the addition of a solid, water-retaining cod-end designed to increase survival at capture. Grow-out techniques were improved by rearing the shrimp separately in jars to prevent aggression. The jars were painted black to protect the shrimp from sunlight. An economic model using experimental catch data and farm gate prices indicates that the fishery based on shrimp, supplemented with small numbers of lobster and fish is economically viable. The next step will be setting up a demonstration farm in a village in the Western Province of Solomon Islands.Aquarium culture, Juveniles, Catch culture, Shrimp fisheries, Catch/effort, Solomon I., Stenopus

    A Low Cost and Labor Efficient Method for Rearing Black Cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), has been and continues to be the subject of many biological and control studies in the north-central states. Interest in this insect can often be traced to its status as a major, but sporadic pest of field com in the region

    SASH: Student Academic Showcase and Honors 2018

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    A celebration of scholarship and creative activities for undergraduate and graduate students held in April, 2018 at the Roger Williams University campus in Bristol, Rhode Island

    LANDSAT imagery of the Venetian Lagoon: A multitemporal analysis

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    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long range tidal dynamics were processed for partial haze removal and removal of residual striping. Selected spectral bands were correlated to different types of turbid water. The multitemporal data was calibrated, classified considering sea truth data, and evaluated. The classification differentiated tide diffusion, algae belts, and industrial, agricultural, and urban turbidity distributions. Pollution concentration is derived during the short time interval between inflow and outflow and from the distance between the two lagoon inlets and the industrial zones. Increasing pollution of the lagoon is indicated

    Methyl Coenzyme M Reductase (mcrA) Gene Abundance Correlates with Activity Measurements of Methanogenic H2/CO2-Enriched Anaerobic Biomass

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    Biologically produced methane (CH4) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH4 production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the α subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase – the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO2 enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H2/CO2. The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH4 production rates using H2/CO2, while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH4 for use as renewable fuel
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