1,017 research outputs found

    Clinical value of diascopy and other non-invasive techniques on differential diagnosis algorithms of oral pigmentations: a systematic review

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    Objectives: To determine the diagnostic value of diascopy and other non-invasive clinical aids on recent differential diagnosis algorithms of oral mucosal pigmentations affecting subjects of any age. Material and Methods: Data Sources: this systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, Scopus, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and the Cochrane Library (2000-2015); Study Selection: two reviewers independently selected all types of English articles describing differential diagnosis algorithms of oral pigmentations and checked the references of finally included papers; Data Extraction: one reviewer performed the data extraction and quality assessment based on previously defined fields while the other reviewer checked their validity. Results: Data Synthesis: eight narrative reviews and one single case report met the inclusion criteria. Diascopy was used on six algorithms (66.67%) and X-ray was included once (11.11%; 44.44% with text mentions); these were considered helpful tools in the diagnosis of intravascular and exogenous pigmentations, respectively. Surface rubbing was described once in the text (11.11%). Conclusions: Diascopy was the most applied method followed by X-ray and surface rubbing. The limited scope of these procedures only makes them useful when a positive result is obtained, turning biopsy into the most recommended technique when diagnosis cannot be established on clinical grounds alon

    Disruption of the basal body protein POC1B results in autosomal-recessive cone-rod dystrophy

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    Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense mutation (c.317C>G [p.Arg106Pro]) in POC1B, encoding POC1 centriolar protein B, in three siblings with autosomal-recessive cone dystrophy or cone-rod dystrophy and compound-heterozygous POC1B mutations (c.199_201del [p.G1n67del] and c.810+1G>T) in an unrelated person with cone-rod dystrophy. Upon overexpression of POC1B in human TERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelium 1 cells, the encoded wild-type protein localized to the basal body of the primary cilium, whereas this localization was lost for p.Arg106Pro and p.G1n67del variant forms of POC1B. Morpholino-oligonucleotide-induced knockdown of poc1b translation in zebrafish resulted in a dose-dependent small-eye phenotype, impaired optokinetic responses, and decreased length of photoreceptor outer segments. These ocular phenotypes could partially be rescued by wild-type human POC1B mRNA, but not by c.199_201del and c.317C>G mutant human POC1B mRNAs. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human retinal cDNA library revealed FAM161A as a binary interaction partner of POC1B. This was confirmed in coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization assays, which both showed loss of FAM161A interaction with p.Arg106Pro and p.G1n67del variant forms of POC1B. FAM161A was previously implicated in autosomal-recessive retinitis pigmentosa and shown to be located at the base of the photoreceptor connecting cilium, where it interacts with several other ciliopathy-associated proteins. Altogether, this study demonstrates that POC1B mutations result in a defect of the photoreceptor sensory cilium and thus affect cone and rod photoreceptors

    Diagnosis of oral pigmentations and malignant transformations

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    AbstractBackgroundOral pigmentation is a common finding in the mouth. Pigmentation can be either normal or abnormal discoloration of oral mucous membrane. The purpose of this review mainly focuses on the main oral pigmented lesions, in order to help the clinicians establish a better approach towards the patients with pigmented oral lesions and to provide thorough knowledge regarding such lesions for patient reassurance, early definitive diagnosis and prompt treatment.MethodsRelevant data concerning oral pigmented lesions, clinical features and the possibility of malignant transformation of such lesions were reviewed thoroughly from pubmed literature published in English. Pigmented lesions affecting the skin were not included in our review.ResultsFew pigmented lesions have been identified and their tendency to become malignant has been reported in the literature. The oral lesions showing malignant transformation reported were mostly case series. Unfortunately, due to lack of long-term studies, follow ups and randomized controlled studies in this respect it was difficult to draw a statistical analysis. This information is quite crucial for general dental practitioners to improve their understanding regarding oral lesions and to differentiate between normal and diseased conditions, so that they can master the skill of differential diagnosis, definitive diagnosis and prompt treatment.ConclusionOral pigmentation may present as focal, multifocal or diffused macular or tumefactive lesions. They may greatly vary in color as blue, purple, brown, gray or black depending on the quantity and site of melanin in the tissues [1]. Etiology of pigmentation can be multi factorial. Mostly pigmentation is physiologic but at times it can be a precursor of severe diseases.Lesions may be caused by localized harmless accumulations of melanin, hemosiderin or exogenous metals or they may be a sign of underlying systemic or genetic disease. A few lesions may be associated with life-threatening medical conditions that require immediate intervention. The differential diagnosis for any pigmented lesion is extensive, as it includes examples of endogenous and exogenous pigmentations. Although biopsy is a helpful and necessary aid in the diagnosis of focally pigmented lesions, with diffuse pigmentation lesions require a thorough dental and medical history and laboratory investigations

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of Low-Particle-Size Toothpastes against Extrinsic Pigmentations: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Stain-removing domiciliary protocols are focused on the elimination of dental extrinsic pigmentations by the application of abrasive toothpastes, extensively available in commerce. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of two different stain removal molecule-formulated toothpastes by the reduction of clinical parameters: the micro-cleaning crystals and activated charcoal. A total of 40 participants with extrinsic dental pigmentations were enrolled and divided into two groups: a Control group, assigned to a toothpaste with micro-cleaning crystals (Colgate Sensation White); and a Trial group, with microparticle-activated charcoal toothpaste (Coswell Blanx Black). At T0 (baseline), T1 (10 days), T2 (1 month), and T3 (3 months), clinical parameters, including Lobene stain index calculated for intensity and extension, plaque control record, and bleeding on probing, were measured. Statistically significant differences were found in both groups (p < 0.05): a reduction of extrinsic pigmentation, both in intensity and extension, was obtained in the Control group, but their total elimination could be achieved only in the Trial group with the activated charcoal molecule, though without significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). No intergroup differences were found for each timeframe for PCR, BoP, LSI-I, and LSI-E. Both tested toothpastes can be recommended for domiciliary oral hygiene of patients with extrinsic pigmentations

    Efficacy of Conventional Laser Irradiation Versus a New Method for Gingival Depigmentation (Sieve Method): A Clinical Trial

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    Introduction: Diode laser irradiation has recently shown promising results for treatment of gingival pigmentation. This study sought to compare the efficacy of 2 diode laser irradiation protocols for treatment of gingival pigmentations, namely the conventional method and the sieve method.Methods: In this split-mouth clinical trial, 15 patients with gingival pigmentation were selected and their pigmentation intensity was determined using Dummett鈥檚 oral pigmentation index (DOPI) in different dental regions. Diode laser (980 nm wavelength and 2 W power) was irradiated through a stipple pattern (sieve method) and conventionally in the other side of the mouth. Level of pain and satisfaction with the outcome (both patient and periodontist) were measured using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS) for both methods. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks, one month and 3 months. Pigmentation levels were compared using repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in level of pain and satisfaction between the 2 groups was analyzed by sample t test and general estimate equation model.Results: No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of pigmentation scores and pain and scores between the 2 groups. The difference in satisfaction with the results at the three time points was significant in both conventional and sieve methods in patients (P = 0.001) and periodontists (P = 0.015).Conclusion: Diode laser irradiation in both methods successfully eliminated gingival pigmentations. The sieve method was comparable to conventional technique, offering no additional advantage

    Pigmentaciones negras ex贸genas en dentici贸n decidua asociadas a ingesta de sulfato ferroso

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    The general objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of exogenous black pigmentations in deciduous dentition and the consumption of ferrous sulfate, in children between 2 and 5 years of age, attended at the Bellavista-Sullana Health Center. The methodology used had a quantitative approach and a non-experimental-correlational, crosssectional design. The technique to be used was the survey and clinical observation. The instruments used were a questionnaire and a graphic scheme that allowed us to record the information of the pigmented teeth using the Albelda M classification (1), both instruments were developed exclusively for this research. The population consisted of 150 children who attended the Bellavista-Sullana Health Center in the period of July-September 2021, the sample being 108 children. The study found that exogenous black pigmentations in deciduous dentition, in children aged 2 to 5 years, are manifested in 29.6% of children, showing that the majority of children (27 of 32, 84.4%) presented grade I pigmentation Likewise, it was concluded that the presence of spots is not significantly related (Sig.> 0.05), neither with the age of the child, nor with sex; In addition, I make it clear that the time that the child has been consuming ferrous sulfate, the type of presentation of said product, the daily intakes and the time after the ingestion of foods that take ferrous sulfate, are not significantly associated (Sig .> 0.05) with the presence of black spots on the adamantine surface of the children evaluated. It was also found that neither brushing to consume ferrous sulfate, nor the number of times the child was found to be significantly related (Sig.> 0.05) with the presence of black spots. Keywords: chromogenic pigmentations. Ferrous sulfate.La presente investigaci贸n tuvo como objetivo general relacionar la presencia de pigmentaciones negras ex贸genas en dentici贸n decidua y el consumo de sulfato ferroso, en ni帽os de 2 a 5 A帽os de edad, atendidos en el Centro De Salud Bellavista- Sullana. La metodolog铆a que se utiliz贸 tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo y un dise帽o no experimentalcorrelacional, de corte transversal. La t茅cnica a emplear fue la encuesta y la observaci贸n cl铆nica. Los instrumentos que se utilizaron fue un cuestionario y un esquema grafico que nos permiti贸 registrar la informaci贸n de los dientes pigmentados utilizando la clasificaci贸n de Albelda M (1), ambos instrumentos se desarrollaron exclusivamente para esta investigaci贸n. La poblaci贸n estuvo conformada por 150 ni帽os que acudieron al Centro de Salud Bellavista- Sullana en el periodo de Julio- setiembre del 2021, siendo la muestra 108 ni帽os. El estudio encontr贸 que las pigmentaciones negras ex贸genas en dentici贸n decidua, en ni帽os de 2 a 5 a帽os, se manifiestan en el 29.6% de los ni帽os, evidenciado que la mayor铆a de los ni帽os (27 de 32, 84.4%) presentaron pigmentaciones de grado I. Asimismo, se concluy贸 que la presencia de manchas no se encuentra relacionada de manera significativa (Sig.>0.05), ni con la edad del ni帽o, ni con el sexo; adem谩s, dejo en evidencia que el tiempo que el ni帽o lleva consumiendo sulfato ferroso, el tipo de presentaci贸n de dicho producto, las tomas diarias y el tiempo despu茅s de la ingesta de alimentos que toman el sulfato ferroso, no se asocian de manera significativa (Sig.>0.05) con la presencia de manchas negras sobre la superficie adamantina de los ni帽os evaluados. Tambi茅n se encontr贸 que ni el cepillado despu茅s de consumir el sulfato ferroso, ni el n煤mero de veces que el(la) ni帽o(a), se encontraron relacionados en forma significativa (Sig.>0.05) con la presencia de manchas negras. Palabras clave: pigmentaciones crom贸genas. Sulfato ferroso

    Melanosis Ilei Associated with Chronic Ingestion of Oral Iron

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    Melanosis can affect various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Melanosis of the colon is not uncommon, while melanosis of the ileum is extremely rare. We report a case of melanosis ilei associated with chronic ingestion of oral iron (256 mg of ferrous sulfate once or twice daily for approximately 5 years) in a 32-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease. The findings of a colonoscopy, which was performed as a part of her medical checkup, were normal up to the cecum; however, numerous brownish-black punctuate pigmentations of the ileal mucosa were observed. Microscopic examination revealed hemosiderosis in the lamina propria of the ileal mucosa, particularly at the tips of villi. The diagnosis of melanosis (hemosiderosis) ilei was made based on the endoscopic and histological findings

    Oral pigmented lesions: clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

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    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker's melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients

    Hairy Tongue

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    Hairy tongue (lingua villosa) is a commonly observed condition of defective desquamation of the filiform papillae that results from a variety of precipitating factors. [1] The condition is most frequently referred to as black hairy tongue (lingua villosa nigra); however, hairy tongue may also appear brown, white, green, pink, or any of a variety of hues depending on the specific etiology and secondary factors (eg, use of colored mouthwashes, breath mints, candies). [2, 3] See the images below
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