34,706 research outputs found

    Comparison of physical fitness between healthy and mild‐to‐moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms: A cross‐sectional study

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    .Objective Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect physical fitness, although its primary effects on exercise capacity, muscle strength, functionality and lifestyle, in children and adolescents, are still poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle, lung function, and functionality between asthmatics with exercise symptoms and healthy children. In addition, we have analyzed the association between clinical history and the presence of asthma. Study Design Cross-sectional study including 71 patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 71 healthy children and adolescents (7–17 years of age). Anthropometric data, clinical history, disease control, lifestyle (KIDMED and physical activity questionnaires), lung function (spirometry), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction test, aerobic fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise test), muscle strength and functionality (timed up and go; timed up and down stairs) were evaluated. Results Seventy-one patients with asthma (mean age 11.5 ± 2.7) and 71 healthy subjects (mean age 10.7 ± 2.5) were included. All asthmatic children had mild to moderate and stable asthma. EIB occurred in 56.3% of asthmatic children. Lung function was significantly (p < .05) lower in the asthmatic group when compared to healthy peers, as well as the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle and functionality. Moreover, asthmatic children were more likely to have atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions, food allergies, and a family history of asthma when compared to healthy children. Conclusions Children with mild-to-moderate asthma presenting exercise symptoms show a reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, functionality, and lifestyle when compared to healthy peers. The study provides data for pediatricians to support exercise practice aiming to improve prognosis and quality of life in asthmatic children.S

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Enforcement of Gun Control Laws and Minority Communities: Finding the Right Balance Between Public Safety and Limiting Mass Incarceration

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    This thesis is on the enforcement of gun control laws on minorities, and whether the enforcement of those laws discriminate against them. My research question is, “Does gun control still discriminate against non-white people?” I compared New York City and South Carolina. I wanted a liberal area with strict gun laws and a conservative area with loose gun laws. Those areas provided the necessary racial breakdown. I researched the statistics of people in prison for firearm violations in these areas and other crimes. I looked at the SAFE Act that was passed in NYC, and whether minority populations in prison increased after it was passed. I analyzed data from the NYPD, the SC Law Enforcement Division, and the SC Department of Public Safety. I used data from the NRA to see which gun control laws NYC and SC have. I predicted minority populations incarcerated would increase after the SAFE Act was passed, and there would be less minority populations incarcerated for gun crimes in SC than NYC. My findings were not what I expected. There were less Black people in prison for gun crimes after the SAFE Act was passed, and about the same for other minorities. There were lots of Black people arrested in SC for gun crimes, which was much higher than other crimes. This indicates 1) the SAFE Act is not discriminatory towards minorities, and 2) minorities are discriminated against with gun laws, including loose gun laws

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, Québec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to Québec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    Study on the concordance between different SNP‐genotyping platforms in sheep

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    .Different SNP genotyping technologies are commonly used in multiple studies to perform QTL detection, genotype imputation, and genomic predictions. Therefore, genotyping errors cannot be ignored, as they can reduce the accuracy of different procedures applied in genomic selection, such as genomic imputation, genomic predictions, and false-positive results in genome-wide association studies. Currently, whole-genome resequencing (WGR) also offers the potential for variant calling analysis and high-throughput genotyping. WGR might overshadow array-based genotyping technologies due to the larger amount and precision of the genomic information provided; however, its comparatively higher price per individual still limits its use in larger populations. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the two most popular SNP-chip technologies, namely, Affymetrix and Illumina, for high-throughput genotyping in sheep considering high-coverage WGR datasets as references. Analyses were performed using two reference sheep genome assemblies, the popular Oar_v3.1 reference genome and the latest available version Oar_rambouillet_v1.0. Our results demonstrate that the genotypes from both platforms are suggested to have high concordance rates with the genotypes determined from reference WGR datasets (96.59% and 99.51% for Affymetrix and Illumina technologies, respectively). The concordance results provided in the current study can pinpoint low reproducible markers across multiple platforms used for sheep genotyping data. Comparing results using two reference genome assemblies also informs how genome assembly quality can influence genotype concordance rates among different genotyping platforms. Moreover, we describe an efficient pipeline to test the reliability of markers included in sheep SNP-chip panels against WGR datasets available on public databases. This pipeline may be helpful for discarding low-reliability markers before exploiting genomic information for gene mapping analyses or genomic predictionS

    Impact of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis on caregivers: caregiver-reported outcomes from the multinational PICTURE study

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    From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2021-11-02, accepted 2022-01-16, registration 2022-01-18, pub-electronic 2022-02-02, online 2022-02-02, collection 2022-12Publication status: PublishedFunder: Albireo Pharma, Inc.Abstract: Background: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a spectrum of rare genetic diseases characterized by inadequate bile secretion that requires substantial ongoing care, though little research is published in this area. We report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work productivity outcomes from the retrospective, cross-sectional PICTURE study investigating the burden of PFIC on caregivers. Information from caregivers of patients with PFIC 1 or 2 in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States from September 2020 to March 2021 was included. Results: The PICTURE study sample comprised HRQoL responses from 22 PFIC caregivers. Patients were on average 8.2 years old; most caregivers were 30–49 years old (68%) and mothers (77%). Median CarerQoL-7D score was 67.7/100; mean CarerQoL-VAS score for general happiness was 5.7/10 (SD 2.1). Most caregivers reported fulfilment in their caregiving responsibilities, but problems with mental and physical health, finances, and relationships. When stratified by patient’s PFIC type, mean CarerQoL-7D and CarerQoL-VAS scores suggested worse HRQoL outcomes with PFIC2 versus PFIC1 (59.4 vs. 71.2, and 5.3 vs. 6.5, respectively). Additionally, more caregivers reported impact on sleep in the PFIC2 versus PFIC1 subgroup (93% vs. 75%). When stratified by history of PFIC-related surgeries, mean CarerQoL-7D and VAS scores were higher among those whose children had no specified surgeries (67.7 vs. 59.0/100 and 6.2 vs. 5.2/10, respectively). Nearly all caregivers reported an impact of caregiving responsibilities on sleeping (86%) and on personal relationships (82%). No caregivers reported having formal care support. Most caregivers were employed (73%); a third reported mean productivity loss of 12.9 days (SD 19.3) over the last 3 months, and a mean of 2.8 (SD 9.5) missed years of employment during their career. A higher number of workdays were missed by PFIC 2 caregivers compared to PFIC1 over last 3 months (16 days vs. 3 days). Conclusions: The PICTURE study has demonstrated the prevalent, comprehensive, and meaningful burden that caring for an individual with PFIC has on caregivers. Despite fulfilment from caregiving, the breadth and depth of these responsibilities reduced caregiver reported HRQoL including mental and physical health, productivity, career prospects, sleep, relationships and finances