4,547 research outputs found

    Le rÎle des réseaux de villes dans le rayonnement des municipalités baltiques : une force des liens faibles ?

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    International audienceIntegration into the global arena is primarily determined by economic and financial factors, which suggest an image of the world as an archipelago sustained by major global capitals. If the Baltic municipalities remain in a grey area in such an interpretation, they are nonetheless embedded in both global and European long distance networks that local participants use to their advantage in the development of inter-territorial strategies. The acquisition of greater geographical importance happens indirectly, often through a detour or roundabout process. It is based on low level interactions, corporate networks, intermittent projects or interpersonal connections which, as they accumulate, end up causing structural reorganization on a transnational or even European scale.L’insertion dans la mondialisation est souvent Ă©valuĂ©e Ă  partir d’indicateurs majeurs principalement Ă©conomiques et financiers qui invitent Ă  reprĂ©senter le monde comme un archipel construit par les principales mĂ©tropoles. Si les municipalitĂ©s baltiques demeurent une zone grise dans une telle conception, elles s’inscrivent pourtant dans des rĂ©seaux europĂ©ens et globaux Ă  longue distance que les acteurs locaux mettent Ă  profit dans l’élaboration de stratĂ©gies interterritoriales. L’accĂšs aux niveaux gĂ©ographiques supĂ©rieurs n’est pas direct mais adopte souvent la forme du dĂ©tour ou du parcours. Il repose sur des interactions « Ă  bas bruit », rĂ©seaux institutionnels, projets ponctuels ou liens interpersonnels qui, lorsqu’elles s’additionnent, finissent par gĂ©nĂ©rer des recompositions structurantes Ă  l’échelle transnationale et mĂȘme europĂ©enne

    Parcours géographique en Baltique

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    GĂ©ographie subjective de la mer Baltique.L'entrĂ©e dans la mer Baltique est sinueuse : traverser la Manche, remonter les cĂŽtes de la Northern Range europĂ©enne, apercevoir au loin les portiques de Rotterdam, puis venir s'Ă©chouer le long d'une tour imprenable, sentinelle danoise dressĂ©e devant la porte. OĂč est donc le seuil ? Skagerrak, Kattegat, la tresse se divise en plus minces faisceaux entre Petit Belt (Lillebaelt), Grand Belt (Storebaelt) et Øresund. Tous les navires ne pourront pas passer de l'autre cĂŽtĂ©. DĂ©jĂ , les filets verticaux de l'autoroute maritime croisent des cordes horizontales plus aĂ©riennes : ponts, tunnels, Ă©oliennes offshore. Alors, nous pĂ©nĂ©trons dans la Baltique qui s'arrondit Ă  l'ouest, flanche le long du Golfe de Riga avant de s'Ă©tirer, tout au nord, dans les langues glacĂ©es des Golfes de Botnie et de Finlande

    Les stratégies interterritoriales des municipalités de l'Allemagne baltique : une transition par les réseaux de villes ?

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    National audienceSince the 1990s, the Baltic region has been undergoing a complete reorganisation, which is characterized by a type of regionalization often known as "The New Hansa". The coastline cities of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, which lie far from the most dynamic German and European areas and often suffer from an economic and demographic decline, see in this the chance for a new start. The question is whether using the supranational scale and in particular cooperating with the Øresund regions can enable public and private stakeholders to offer a real prospect of development to the shrinking towns of Northern Germany.Depuis les annĂ©es 1990, la rĂ©gion baltique connaĂźt une intense recomposition prenant les traits d’une rĂ©gionalisation souvent qualifiĂ©e de « Nouvelle Hanse ». Les villes littorales du Schleswig-Holstein et du Mecklembourg-PomĂ©ranie-Occidentale, situĂ©es en marge des rĂ©gions allemandes et europĂ©ennes les plus dynamiques et souvent touchĂ©es par un dĂ©clin Ă©conomique et dĂ©mographique, y voient l’occasion d’un nouveau dĂ©part. L’utilisation de l’échelle supranationale et notamment de collaborations avec les rĂ©gions de l’Øresund permet-elle aux acteurs publics et privĂ©s de proposer une rĂ©elle perspective de dĂ©veloppement pour les villes rĂ©trĂ©cissantes d’Allemagne du Nord

    Géoéconomie des détroits danois

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    Le contrĂŽle des dĂ©troits danois a Ă©tĂ© un enjeu jusqu’à la fin du XIXe siĂšcle, moment oĂč l’alternative du canal de Kiel offre une autre possibilitĂ© de passage maritime entre la mer du Nord et la mer Baltique. Les liens fixes mis en service Ă  la fin du XXe siĂšcle et le jeu des grands acteurs portuaires, avec la montĂ©e en puissance du hub Hambourg-LĂŒbeck, court-circuitent les dĂ©troits, qui se trouvent replacĂ©s au coeur d’une rĂ©gion europĂ©enne binationale.For many years, the Danish straits had been an object of rivalry up to the end of the nineteenth century when the Kiel Canal opened, which offered another option for maritime navigation between the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The fixed links, which became operational at the end of the twentieth century and the activities of major port operators, with the growing force of the Hamburg-LĂŒbeck hub, have short-circuited the straits, which have since been replaced in the heart of a bi-national European region

    Edito : Parcours géographique en Baltique

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    Essai scientifique sous la forme d'un parcours subjectif en mer Baltique pour la revue ClassicagendaL’entrĂ©e dans la mer Baltique est sinueuse : traverser la Manche, remonter les cĂŽtes de la Northern Range europĂ©enne, apercevoir au loin les portiques de Rotterdam, puis venir s’échouer le long d’une tour imprenable, sentinelle danoise dressĂ©e devant la porte. OĂč est donc le seuil ? Skagerrak, Kattegat, la tresse se divise en plus minces faisceaux entre Petit Belt (LillebĂŠlt), Grand Belt (StorebĂŠlt) et Øresund. Tous les navires ne pourront pas passer de l’autre cĂŽtĂ©. DĂ©jĂ , les filets verticaux de l’autoroute maritime croisent des cordes horizontales plus aĂ©riennes : ponts, tunnels, Ă©oliennes offshore. Alors, nous pĂ©nĂ©trons dans la Baltique qui s’arrondit Ă  l’Ouest, flanche le long du Golfe de Riga avant de s’étirer, tout au Nord, dans les langues glacĂ©es des Golfes de Botnie et de Finlande. Sommes-nous donc entrĂ©s dans une mer ou dans un lac ? L’un et l’autre, duel des glaciers avec les socles continentaux, pour une mer Ă  Yoldia, un lac Ancylus, et quelques montĂ©es et descentes des eaux plus tard, une mer qu’on appellera Baltique. Chercher sans fin les rivages perdus de Baltia au dĂ©tour d’une page de Pline . Les veines de la Baltique viennent dĂ©verser une eau souillĂ©e qui s'agglutinera de dĂ©chets verts en flaques noires. LĂ -bas soufflent les cheminĂ©es de la Haute-SilĂ©sie. Des artĂšres qui Ă©touffent mais qui autrefois nourrissaient quand, Ă  l’apogĂ©e de la Hanse mĂ©diĂ©vale, bois, ambre, et lin Ă©taient acheminĂ©s le long de la Daugava ou de la Vistule. Nervures rĂ©ticulaires d’une MĂ©diterranĂ©e du Nord . PĂŽles, l’hĂŽtel de ville de LĂŒbeck, les chantiers navals de GdaƄsk, le Cavalier de bronze de Saint-PĂ©tersbourg. Flux, les traversĂ©es Kiel-Klaipėda et les escales hors du temps dans les Ăźles Åland. RĂ©seaux, toujours, qui s’infiltrent dans les ports et soulĂšvent les villes. Bordures de notre carte mais synapses vers la suivante

    Estonia “has not time” : Existential Politics at the End of Empire

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    This article is about the Estonian transition from the era of perestroika to the 1990s. It suggests that the Estonian national movement considered the existence of the nation to be threatened. Therefore, it used the window of opportunity presented by perestroika to take control of time and break free of the empire. This essay has the following theoretical premises. First, Estonia was not engaged in “normal politics” but in something that I will conceptualise, following the Copenhagen School, as “existential politics.” Second, the key feature of existential politics is time. I will draw on the distinction, made in the ancient Greek thought, between the gods Chronos and Kairos. By applying these concepts to Estonia, I suggest Kairos presented the opportunity to break the normal flow of time and the decay of Socialism (Chronos) in order to fight for the survival of the Estonian nation. The third starting point is Max Weber’s historical sociology, particularly his notion of “charisma,” developed in Stephen Hanson’s interpretation of the notions of time in Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. Based on this, I will argue that Estonian elites thought they were living in extraordinary times that required the breaking of the normal flow of time, which was thought to be corroding the basis of the nation’s existence.Peer reviewe

    Fueling Incubation: Differential Use of Body Stores in Arctic and Temperate-breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis)

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    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores during incubation. Average daily body-mass loss was almost identical in the 2 temperate-breeding populations (17.0 g and 16.5 g in Baltic Sea and North Sea, respectively), whereas Arctic-breeding females lost significantly less (10.6 g day-1). Temperate-breeding females initiated incubation with body mass 125 g higher than that of Arctic breeders, but at the end of incubation, body mass was similar among the 3 populations, averaging 1,458 g. Body-mass loss during incubation amounted to 23% (North Sea), 22% (Baltic Sea), and 15% (Barents Sea). Fat mass, as measured by isotope dilution in a subsample of females, was consistently higher in North Sea than in Barents Sea birds, but both populations showed similar rates of fat-mass loss (9.4 g day-1, on average). By contrast, loss of fat-free mass (assumed to represent wet protein) amounted to 9.3 g day-1 in North Sea birds but only 1.5 g day-1 in Barents Sea birds. Energy content of 1 g utilized body mass was 21.1 kJ (North Sea) and 34.9 kJ (Barents Sea), which equates to 376 kJ day-1 and 415 kJ day-1 drawn from stored energy, respectively. We suggest that differences in nest-attendance and post-incubation demands are responsible for the differential use of body stores in temperate- and Arctic-breeding Barnacle Geese.

    Les pĂȘches de l’URSS dans l’Atlantique du Nord-Est et l’élargissement des zones de pĂȘche exclusive

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    After the last war, the USSR set it self to increase the development of its ocean fisheries from its two North-East Atlantic seaboards on the Barents Sea and the Baltic. With a modernized fleet and almost complete freedom on the seas, its catch increased six fold between 1950 and 1976, going from 0,4 to 2,5 million tons per year, and Soviet fishermen could be found roaming on all the seas bordering Europe. However, as from 1977, this expansion was fiercely curtailed when coastal nations, including the USSR, established the 200-mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or mere exclusive fishing zone (EFZ), each being alloted almost all of its living resource s. More fishing grounds were lost by the USSR than gained, to the point where production suddenly fell in 1977 and it had to turn to fish of lesser quality, often used for industrial purposes, such as the Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and the blue Whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) which today make up to 60 % of all its catch off Northern Europe. The Soviet authorities reacted with flexibility and diversity, namely by increased fishing in the national exclusive zone, particularly in the Barents Sea, through negotiations leading to access rights to foreign waters, particularly those of Norway and the Faeroe Islands, and through a policy whereby it could purchase unprocessed fish from some members of the EEC. Thus Russian factory ships came to the British coasts to process mackerel delivered to them at sea by English and Scottish fishermen. It is through such a strategy of diversification, various examples of which may be found around the world, that the Soviets have succeeded in regaining grounds lost in 1977 and in reaching an average production of 1,7 million tons from 1977 to 1983 in the North-East Atlantic, this being 3 to 4 % less than that of 1970-76, notwithstanding the few purchases of fish made directly at sea
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