82,670 research outputs found

    Intra-Industry Trade in the Baltic Sea Region

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    The purpose of this paper is to analyse economic integration in the Baltic Sea Region as it has emerged from mid-1990s. More importantly, we seek to assess the quality of integration as conferred by the development of intra-industry trade between the two groups of countries in the Baltic Sea region: Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany at the Western coast, and Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland at the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The analysis of the change in the quality of the traded goods reveals that the economic intergration in the Baltic Sea Region has so far not led to a vast increase of the competitiveness of industry at the relatively less developed Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The equalisation of market prices has predominantly taken place in the trade of raw materials, whereas the Eastern countries continue to trade with deficit in the majority of manufactured goods where the equalisation of unit prices has actually taken place. The above seems to support the results of our previous research, in which we have concluded that the economies of the Baltic States and Poland continue to act as lower value-added parts of the cross-border clusters in the Baltic Sea Region. Consequently, if catching up in living standards with the northern and western neighbours is envisioned, much more systematic investment into education and technology is needed in the Baltic States and Poland.Baltic Sea region, intra-industry trade integration

    Containerisation in the Baltic Sea region: development, characteristics and contemporary organisation

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    The main focus of the paper is on the container system development in the Baltic Sea Region studying cotemporary changes and organisation, as well as explaining the main driving forces of this situation. The Baltic Sea is a transport corridor between Eastern and Western Europe. Over the last decade maritime transport in the Baltic Sea area has changed significantly. The disintegration of the Soviet Union forced Russia to start developing its own Baltic ports and terminals and to find new routes to export its oil and gas. The Baltic ports have welcomed a remarkable growth, especially in oil transportation and containerised flows. The geographical configuration of the region naturally places it away from major global shipping lines. This situation is accentuated by the organisation of maritime regular lines, centred in Northern European ports. For this reason, the regional container network is mainly made up of feeder services

    European integration and EU eastward enlargement process in international trade: using a gravity approach for exploring bilateral trade flows

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    The paper is going to give an overview of the comparative evaluation of the Baltic Sea region countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Russia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) competitiveness based on various methodological approaches ranking countries according to their level of international competitiveness. The study mainly bases on the data of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID), International Institute for Management Development (IMD) and national and international statistical authorities. Factor analysis as a data reduction method is used in order to elaborate generalized indicators (factors) of a country's competitiveness level and to compare the factor analysis based rankings of the Baltic Sea region economies with the ranking results based on the other methodological approaches (HIID methodology for evaluation of the economies' in transition competitiveness, World Competitiveness Yearbook (WCY) methodology). According to the results of using factor analysis, the main generalized indicators that explain a country's competitiveness level are the size of economy and level of economic development, which explain more than 50% of variation of initial indicators of a country's macroeconomic environment. Other generalized indicators could be interpreted as the factors that characterize development of infrastructure and/or human resources, and also openness of economy. Based on the results of the study, it is possible to conclude that the Baltic Sea region countries have good competitive position among the leading world economies and the economies in transition. The countries around the Baltic Sea have historical and cultural traditions for developing trade relations and economic cooperation. The development of mutually beneficial economic co-operation between the capital abundant countries such as Germany and the Scandinavian countries and the transitional countries of the region, which provide the possibilities of entrance into the new markets and also rather cheap and qualified labour force, has positively influenced economic environment of all Baltic Sea region countries. For the Baltic economies in transition, the regional co-operation has created conditions that support their rapid economic restructuring, development of infrastructure and human capital, and quick rise of competitiveness. To sum up, the Baltic Sea region has good potential for competitive economic development due to its favourable location between East and West and dynamic interdependence between transition and integration, stimulating both processes.

    The future of the Baltic Sea region: Potentials and challenges

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    The study analyses the development possibilities of the Baltic Sea region from various perspectives. It deals with the current situation, the potential and the future challenges. Thereby this study puts its focus on trade in the Baltic Sea area, demographic trends, capacity for innovation and the economic impact of the cities in this area. --

    Approaches to the definition of the Baltic sea region

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    The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed and well-formed regions of international cooperation. It is a place for promoting collaboration between businesses, non-profits, public authorities, and municipalities of the countries located on the Baltic Sea coast and its adjacent territories. The Baltic Sea region has both unresolved problems and potential for development. This necessitates the identification of the Baltic Sea region territory having a capacity for the efficient development of mutually beneficial intergovernmental and international ties. A thorough overview of research literature, the implementation of international programmes and initiatives of international and intergovernmental organisations, and the application of the method of cartographic analysis have contributed to defining the territory of the Baltic region. The analysis shows three spaces that differ in the effect of the Baltic Sea on their territorial development. This approach proposes three definitions of the Baltic Sea region - a narrow, an extended, and a broad one, each serving a different purpose and being characterised by a different density of internal connections. According to the narrow definition, the region comprises the whole territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and the coastal parts of Russia, Germany, and Poland. The extended definition adds the remaining part of Poland, most Russian and German regions, and Belarus and Norway. The broad definition of the Baltic region incorporates Iceland, some territories of Russia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine

    The prevalence of envelope wages in the Baltic Sea region

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    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate in the Baltic Sea region the prevalence of an illegitimate wage arrangement whereby formal employers pay their formal employees both an official declared wage as well as a supplementary undeclared (envelope) wage. Design/methodology/approach - A 2007 Eurobarometer survey is reported that evaluates envelope wage practices in 27 European Union (EU) member states. This paper focuses upon the 4,031 face-to-face interviews conducted in four countries from the Baltic Sea region that are now member states of the EU, namely Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Findings - Some one in eight formal employees in these four countries from the Baltic Sea region received an undeclared "envelope" wage from their formal employer during the past 12 months which on average amounted to 45 per cent of their gross wage packet. Although this practice is concentrated in smaller businesses, the construction industry, and amongst younger people, manual workers and lower income groups in these four countries, it is by no means confined to specific pockets of the economic landscape. Rather, it exists throughout these countries in all business types and employee groups. Research limitations/implications - The existence and commonality of envelope wages reveals the need to transcend the dichotomous depiction of formal and informal jobs as always separate and discrete and to recognise how they can be inextricably interwoven. Practical implications - This paper outlines a range of potential policy measures for tack-ling envelope wages and calls for their piloting and evaluation. Originality/value - The first cross-national evaluation of the incidence and nature of envelope wages in the Baltic Sea region and what needs to be done to tackle this practice

    Международная проектная деятельность: как один из механизмов конструирования Балтийского регионa

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    The article analyzes the processes of regional construction and their specific features in the Baltic Sea region. The article provides insights into main approaches to defining the notion of the Baltic Sea Region, its geography, rationales and preconditions of the Baltic Sea Region construction. The author makes conclusion that currently the construction process is being continued, and it involves a wide range of actors: NGOs, local and regional authorities, scientific organizations, higher education institutions, business structures, international organizations. All these actors use different tools and act in different spheres. Although there is no clear answer to the question "Who and how constructs the Baltic Sea Region?", it is concluded that the cooperation played a significant role in this process, for example, by determining the geography of the region and creating communication networks. Projects, in turn, become a widespread form of cooperation which are used by large Baltic interregional organizations, such as the Northern Dimension, Interregional programmes, the Council of the Baltic Sea States. International project activity of the described above actors, being the point of pooled resources application and also narratives on the regional issues, became one of the mechanisms of the region construction. The article proves that a wide variety of projects in various fields with the participation of different actors creates a picture of the Baltic Sea region building some of its features and providing common identity and responsibility ideas. (author's abstract

    A transnational and holistic breeding approach is needed for sustainable wheat production in the Baltic Sea region

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    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate.Peer reviewe

    A Baltic Sea region student poster exhibition on cooperation and conflict in medicine

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    Which topics and developments in the field of medicine and health sci- ences are relevant for the Baltic Sea macro-region in the future? How can a wider public be involved in the discourses of cooperation within the Baltic Sea region

    Baltic Sea INT Chart Scheme

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    The Baltic Sea Hydrographic Commission (BSHC) recognizes the need to actively develop and maintain official nautical charts, in both paper and digital formats. This supports ships engaged on international voyages in the Baltic Sea region. Accordingly, it appoints and directs a working group to undertake this task. The working group is named the Baltic Sea International Charting Coordination Working Group (BSICCWG).The Baltic Sea INT Charting Coordination Working Group (BSICCWG) and its main activities in maintaining the Baltic Sea INT Scheme will be described in this note. In recent years the working group’s original function to coordinate the paper chart scheme in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to digital products, especially the ENC