48,495 research outputs found

    Enforcement of Gun Control Laws and Minority Communities: Finding the Right Balance Between Public Safety and Limiting Mass Incarceration

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    This thesis is on the enforcement of gun control laws on minorities, and whether the enforcement of those laws discriminate against them. My research question is, “Does gun control still discriminate against non-white people?” I compared New York City and South Carolina. I wanted a liberal area with strict gun laws and a conservative area with loose gun laws. Those areas provided the necessary racial breakdown. I researched the statistics of people in prison for firearm violations in these areas and other crimes. I looked at the SAFE Act that was passed in NYC, and whether minority populations in prison increased after it was passed. I analyzed data from the NYPD, the SC Law Enforcement Division, and the SC Department of Public Safety. I used data from the NRA to see which gun control laws NYC and SC have. I predicted minority populations incarcerated would increase after the SAFE Act was passed, and there would be less minority populations incarcerated for gun crimes in SC than NYC. My findings were not what I expected. There were less Black people in prison for gun crimes after the SAFE Act was passed, and about the same for other minorities. There were lots of Black people arrested in SC for gun crimes, which was much higher than other crimes. This indicates 1) the SAFE Act is not discriminatory towards minorities, and 2) minorities are discriminated against with gun laws, including loose gun laws

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Queer spies in British Cold War culture: literature, film, theatre and television

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    This PhD thesis investigates how male homosexuality has been represented in British spy fiction from the 1950s to the 2010s in multiple media: literature, film, television and theatre. Due mainly to the betrayal of the Cambridge Spy ring around the middle of the century, British culture has associated spies with homosexuality, while the wider Anglophone world was in the grip of a homophobic atmosphere created by McCarthy's Red Scare. My thesis explores how this history is reflected in the spy genre from the Cold War to the present, in which male homosexuality and secret agency intersect as “queer”, in so far as they were both considered to be discreet and criminal, existing outside of the heteronormative order. By following multiple texts across media and time, I discuss how some writers, television and film directors and actors update queer identity in spy fiction, creating a shifting image of queer spies through decades. I refer to the findings of adaptation studies and queer studies, along with numerous studies on spy fiction. I conclude that the interrelation of different media has contributed to the re-drawing of queer identity in spy fiction. These developments have enabled the spies' queer identity to transcend its pejorative history in British culture, towards its more flexible and pliant sense which is designated by the term's modern usage. I also discuss that spies’ homosexuality has been represented as a fleeting ghost in most of the texts examined, hovering on the margins of pages and screen. Although homosexuality is not “the love that dare not speak its name” anymore, clandestine queer spies have been preserved as spectral others in the genre for many years. Spy fiction is a cultural repository retaining the memory of violence inflicted against those who have been called “queer” in twentieth century Britain, and the spectral nature of queer spies narrates this history reaching back to the Oscar Wilde trial in 1895, from which point British queer identity as we know now developed. This thesis benefits the study of spy fiction by filling a gap in the investigation of homosexual representation. It also contributes to the field of gender studies of literature, film, television, and theatre by illustrating queer history in a genre which has not received a great deal of focus on its representation of homosexuality. Spy fiction occupies a central position in British popular culture, and by exploring this genre in terms of homosexuality, this research will identify the role which same-sex desire has historically played in the British cultural imagination

    Free Movement of Persons and Access to the Labour Market: Lessons from the European Economic Community for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community.

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    PhD Theses.While a regional framework on the free movement of persons does not exist within the current AEC, it envisions advancing the region to have a freer flow of skilled labour. It has initiated the regional movement of selected high-skilled labour through the MRAs on the movement of selected professionals and the MNP on the movement of businesspersons. However, the AEC does not have any integration at the regional level on the movement of low-skilled labour. Thailand, which is the most preferred destination for low-skilled AEC labour, has entered into bilateral agreements with other four AEC member states, namely, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, in order to supplement the regional rule regarding low-skilled labour. This thesis postulates that the EEC free movement of persons framework, which involved the movement of persons to pursue economic activities, could provide useful lessons for the emerging AEC labour migration framework. The main supporting reason for this hypothesis is that the original EEC framework has eventually developed into the most mature regional system on the free movement of persons within the EU. This thesis perceives the development of a regional framework on labour migration as a historical development, which challenges labour migration theory. The central question of this research is “How can participating states develop and accept a legal framework on labour migration within regional economic associations?” This thesis aims to examine the feasibility of regional integration on labour migration within the AEC, taking into account the experiences of the EEC free movement of persons framework. It aims to explore approaches and main features of the labour migration framework of the EEC and the AEC. The examination mainly relies on obstacles to labour migration including access to the labour market, permission to perform economic activities, permission to reside, family reunification, working conditions, and protection from expulsion. This thesis also aims to prove the hypothesis of the new regionalism theory, which proposed that regionalism emerges from below and within the region. Through the lens of the new regionalism theory, it explores the challenge that reliance only on existing international law may be inadequate for regional cooperation to achieve deep regionalism in respect of labour migration. Nevertheless, an effective regional framework could be initiated by new rules agreed by the participating states or developed from reciprocal bilateral agreements

    Examining the Impact of Personal Social Media Use at Work on Workplace Outcomes

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    A noticable shift is underway in today’s multi-generational workforce. As younger employees propel digital workforce transformation and embrace technology adoption in the workplace, organisations need to show they are forward-thinking in their digital transformation strategies, and the emergent integration of social media in organisations is reshaping internal communication strategies, in a bid to improve corporate reputations and foster employee engagement. However, the impact of personal social media use on psychological and behavioural workplace outcomes is still debatebale with contrasting results in the literature identifying both positive and negative effects on workplace outcomes among organisational employees. This study seeks to examine this debate through the lens of social capital theory and study personal social media use at work using distinct variables of social use, cognitive use, and hedonic use. A quantitative analysis of data from 419 organisational employees in Jordan using SEM-PLS reveals that personal social media use at work is a double-edged sword as its impact differs by usage types. First, the social use of personal social media at work reduces job burnout, turnover intention, presenteeism, and absenteeism; it also increases job involvement and organisational citizen behaviour. Second, the cognitive use of personal social media at work increases job involvement, organisational citizen behaviour, employee adaptability, and decreases presenteeism and absenteeism; it also increases job burnout and turnover intention. Finally, the hedonic use of personal social media at work carries only negative effects by increasing job burnout and turnover intention. This study contributes to managerial understanding by showing the impact of different types of personal social media usage and recommends that organisations not limit employee access to personal social media within work time, but rather focus on raising awareness of the negative effects of excessive usage on employee well-being and encourage low to moderate use of personal social media at work and other personal and work-related online interaction associated with positive workplace outcomes. It also clarifies the need for further research in regions such as the Middle East with distinct cultural and socio-economic contexts

    Women’s Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers’ perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    Sharing the Shore: Hybridity and Developing Environmentalisms in the Indiana Dunes

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    This thesis centers on the Indiana Dunes National Park, located in Northwestern Indiana, and the implications of this hybrid landscape on modern American environmentalism. Through secondary source research, historical analysis, and interviews with Miller Beach residents and a park ranger, this research concludes that the Indiana Dunes demonstrate an environmentalism that exists outside of the nature-culture binary. By incorporating the park into existing cities and industrial developments, the Indiana Dunes can be seen as a model for an environmental justice-driven space that diverges from the historic elitism of the National Park service. This research concludes that, while hybrid landscapes come with their own challenges, the hybridity of the Indiana Dunes ultimately points to a bright future for the National Park Service, one that makes public green space accessible and that radically rethinks what it means to be a National Park

    Translating Arabic Poetic Riddles into English: An Approach in Qualitative Studies

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    A riddle is a question that usually occurs in prose and poetic form. The composition of poetic riddles is complicated since it encompasses trick structure of English utterances that require more efforts and deep thinking on the part of readers to reach the intention of the riddle maker. The present study investigated the interpretation of utterances in poetic riddles when translated into English. The main objective was to extend the tricky utterances in poetic riddles to obtain the intention of the riddle maker through translation. To achieve this target, a Relevance Theory by Sperber and Wilson (1986; 1995) was adopted to cognitively interpret how the poetic riddles worked through translation. Then, Bach’s (1994) Ambiguity was also used to explain the meaning that fell under a word, phrase or even a statement. Finally, Gutt’s (1991; 1998; 2000) notion on the directness and indirectness of the interpretation was employed. Overall, the results showed that Arabic poetic riddles included ambiguous words as well as implicit meanings that require decoding to gain the intent word made by the riddle maker. Furthermore, Arabic poetic riddles are full of attribute words to help getting the intent word.&nbsp

    Walking with the Earth: Intercultural Perspectives on Ethics of Ecological Caring

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    It is commonly believed that considering nature different from us, human beings (qua rational, cultural, religious and social actors), is detrimental to our engagement for the preservation of nature. An obvious example is animal rights, a deep concern for all living beings, including non-human living creatures, which is understandable only if we approach nature, without fearing it, as something which should remain outside of our true home. “Walking with the earth” aims at questioning any similar preconceptions in the wide sense, including allegoric-poetic contributions. We invited 14 authors from 4 continents to express all sorts of ways of saying why caring is so important, why togetherness, being-with each others, as a spiritual but also embodied ethics is important in a divided world
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