3,041 research outputs found

    Ten Things to Watch in Africa in 2024

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    Democracy will remain under pressure in Africa, with key elections coming up in 2024. While conflict risks could intensify, the decline of Western influence will continue. Structural socio-economic challenges are likely to persist despite economic growth. The Africa Cup of Nations will be a highlight at the beginning of the year. We present here a list of "Ten Things to Watch in Africa" in 2024. Politics: With the recent wave of military coups, democracy has come under pressure. Further coups remain a risk, especially in countries with politicised militaries and political crises. Important general elections will, inter alia, be held in Ghana and South Africa where heavy losses for the ruling parties are expected. Peace and security: Coups are often connected to armed conflicts. The spillover of jihadism and related ethno-regional tensions in West Africa will be a major security challenge. In the Horn of Africa, the ceasefire in Ethiopia's Tigray Region seems to be holding but the country remains instable. Internationally: Similar to Russia's war on Ukraine, the Israel-Hamas conflict also divides African governments. The relative decline of Western influence is likely to continue, not least regarding military presence. Growing anti-immigration sentiment in Europe has made migration a salient issue in African-European relations. Socio-economic development: African economies are set to experience continued growth that will, however, vary across countries, while debt remains a formidable challenge. Green deals are likely to remain sluggish

    Governance quality and trade performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    In this study, nexuses between governance and trade performance in terms of natural resource rents are assessed in 44 sub-Saharan African countries. The empirical evidence is based on Tobit regressions. The findings show that political governance (entailing “voice & accountability” and political stability) and institutional governance (consisting of the rule of law and corruption control) have a negative effect on trade performance. The findings are consistent with the perspective that resources rents are linked to inefficiencies in governance which are further detrimental to trade performance within the remit of natural resource rents on the one hand and, on the other, the premise of the prevailing weak institutions in the region less likely to boost trade performance.Colleges of Economic and Management Science

    Asymmetries in global scientific knowledge production: regional representations in climate change research

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    This study examines regional representations in scientific climate change research. More specifically, the aim of this thesis is to map the geographical distribution of case studies in adaptation and mitigation related research, as well as to determine whether certain economy, education, research, and development related factors correlate with said distribution. As a starting point for this endeavour, three central factors can be highlighted: the social organisation of knowledge, spatial or geographical contexts, and resources. These factors emerge from the theoretical discussion about structural power and inequalities in the global knowledge economy, and underlying them is the idea that knowledge production has social, spatial, and economic importance, which is all tied to structural power. The data of this study comprises 10 000 scientific articles about climate adaptation and mitigation, published between the years 2018 and 2022 and collected from Scopus -database. In this sample, there are 6 844 case studies that form the final dataset. The first part of the analysis examines the geographical distribution of these case studies, whereas the second part looks into the existence and strength of possible correlations between the recurrence of case study locations and the following indicators: Research and Development expenditure (as a percentage of GDP), GDP per capita (PPP), government expenditure on tertiary education (as a percentage of GDP), the number of researchers per million people, Human Development Index, and Global Innovation Index. One of the main conclusions of the analysis is that there is clear variation in the spatial distribution of case study locations: certain countries and regions are much more studied than others, and there are some regional “clusters” that stand out due to a very large or a very small number of conducted case studies. In the original dataset, population sizes clearly influence the observed regional representations, considering that countries with particularly large populations stand out: for example USA, China, Brazil, India, Ethiopia, South-Africa, and Australia. When the number of case studies per country has been population-adjusted, the highest proportions of case studies can be found from Oceania, Northern Europe (especially from the Nordic countries), Northern America, and Southern Africa. It is clear that in the dataset of this thesis, case study locations are not evenly distributed across the globe. Another important conclusion is that, as the correlation analysis shows, there is a positive, albeit only weak to moderate, association between the recurrence of case studies and all of the chosen indicators. The strongest correlation can be found between the number of case studies and the number of researchers, but R&D expenditures and the Global Innovation Index demonstrate moderate correlations to the recurrence of case study locations as well. These variables are, therefore, likely related to the levels of regional representation observed in the dataset. GDP per capita (PPP), tertiary education expenditures, and the Human Development Index, on the other hand, only show weak correlations, which would indicate a rather unsubstantial relationship between said variables and the number of case studies

    2023 Global Religious Recognition Report

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    The Global Religious Recognition Report (GRR Report) returns for its second edition, this year including more detail on each country and territory's registration policies and on their practices of states extending privileges to some religions and beliefs and not others. Recognition and registration issues continue to impact conditions of freedom of religion or belief throughout the world and it is the purpose of the GRR Report to highlight the extent of these issues nation by nation as part of the report's country-specific approach to the subject. Detailed explanations of registration policy have been gathered from the Office of International Religious Freedom's International Religious Freedom Report in addition to other credible sources. The RoRB classification for each country and territory has been updated in accordance with the criteria set out in the Spectrum of Religious Recognition (SRR) which was included towards the front of this year's report. With more detail provided this year on registration policy in each nation, this report has revealed the complexity of registration issues and the drastic impacts they have on religious freedom

    WAQF Water Management Development Law for Countries in the African Continent

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    Insufficient water availability will threaten the survival of humans in a region. Countries in Africa are known to be barren and have extremely hot climates. The ongoing clean water crisis has taken a huge toll. The Indonesian government in collaboration with all countries should have a role in unraveling this problem. One of the solutions offered is legal protection and the development of clean water infrastructure and facilities by building waqf wells. This research intends to examine the management of waqf wells, the condition of water scarcity in African countries, and how the role of the government and waqf institutions in Indonesia and around the world to overcome the scarcity of clean water in Africa. The research method used is qualitative. As a result, we found one humanitarian agency (Aksi Cepat Tanggap), which is quite active in implementing the waqf well program in several countries in Africa. In general, the program has received a positive response from the beneficiaries of the waqf wells

    Inorganic fertilizer use and its association with rice yield gaps in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Where and which countries should receive higher priority for improving inorganic fertilizer use in rice fields in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)? This study addressed this question by assessing the spatial variation in fertilizer use and its association with rice yield and yield gap in 24 SSA countries through a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers, theses, and grey literature published between 1995 and 2021. The results showed a large variation in N, P, and K fertilizer application rates and rice yield and an opportunity for narrowing the yield gap by increasing N and P rates, especially in irrigated rice systems. We identified clusters of sites/countries based on nutrient input and yield and suggested research and development strategies for improving yields and optimizing nutrient use efficiencies. Further research is essential to identify the factors causing low fertilizer use and the poor association between its use and yield in rainfed systems