2,937 research outputs found

    The Fallacy of Systemic Racism in the American Criminal Justice System

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    Critics of the criminal justice system have repeatedly charged it with systemic racism. It is a tenet of the “war” on the “War on Drugs,” it is a justification used by the so-called “progressive prosecutors” to reject the “Broken Windows” theory of law enforcement, and it is an article of faith of the “Defund the Police!” movement. Even President Joe Biden and his chief lieutenants leveled the same allegation early in this administration. Although the President has eschewed the belief that Americans are a racist people, others have not, proclaiming that virtually anyone who is white is a racist. Yet, few people have defined what they mean by that term. This Article examines what it could mean and tests the truth of the systemic racism claim under each possible definition. None stands up to scrutiny. One argument is that the American citizens who run our many institutions are motivated by racial animus. But the evidence is that racial animus is no longer tolerated in society, and what is more, the criminal justice system strives to identify it when it does occur and to remedy it. Another argument says that the overtly racist beliefs and practices of the past have created lingering racist effects, but this argument cherry-picks historical facts (when it does not ignore them altogether) and fails to grapple with the country’s historic and ongoing efforts to eliminate racial discrimination. It also assumes a causal relationship between past discrimination and present disparities that is unsupported and often contradicted by the evidence. Yet another argument relies psychological research to claim that white Americans are animated by a subconscious racial animus. That research, however, has been debunked. Still another argument says that the criminal justice system is systemically racist because it has disparate effects across racial groups, but this argument looks only at the offenders’ side of the criminal justice system and fails to consider the effect of the criminal justice system on victims. Proponents of the systemic racism theory often proffer “solutions” to it. This Article examines those too and finds that many would, in fact, harm the very people they aim to help. In the context of the “War on Drugs,” where so much of the rhetoric is focused, the authors examine these arguments and solutions. The bottom line is this: the claim of systemic racism in the criminal justice system is unjustified

    Southern Adventist University Undergraduate Catalog 2023-2024

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    Southern Adventist University\u27s undergraduate catalog for the academic year 2023-2024.https://knowledge.e.southern.edu/undergrad_catalog/1123/thumbnail.jp

    Separately, Connectedly: Exploring Trauma Through Ekphrasis in Contemporary Novels

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    This thesis examines ekphrasis as a rhetorical tool to explore, represent, and contemplate trauma affect in contemporary novels. From the Greek phrase for ‘description,’ ekphrasis is part of a long and ancient literary tradition, dating as far back as the ancient depictions of art on urns, weaponry, as well as more disambiguated descriptions of scenes and people. The uses of ekphrasis as a literary device are broad and complex, but its use is under-researched in contemporary novels, and there is a near total absence of investigation into ekphrasis within the novel as a means of contemplating and understanding the affect of a condition that is inherently abstract and disorienting.Literary trauma theory has evolved considerably in recent years. In keeping with important findings in psychology and psychiatric research, there is a broad recognition that rethinking trauma representation beyond the recitation and reliving of events and into textured descriptions of trauma affect is essential for thoughtful, nuanced explorations of an experience that resists narrative convenience. As a result, there are increased calls to accept and represent its inherent fractured nature and resist the authorial temptation to forge a story around it that fits neatly into a cohesive whole. This thesis proposes a framework for considering how various aspects of ekphrastic descriptions of real and imagined art as well as their connotative and denotative significance in the novel reveals nuance in the representation of trauma affect through the activation of language and image. The contemporary novels explored herein are: The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt, What I Loved by Siri Hustvedt, and How to Be Both by Ali Smith. Each of these novels present ekphrasis and affect differently, which enables broader testing of the flexibility of the proposed framework

    Under construction: infrastructure and modern fiction

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    In this dissertation, I argue that infrastructural development, with its technological promises but widening geographic disparities and social and environmental consequences, informs both the narrative content and aesthetic forms of modernist and contemporary Anglophone fiction. Despite its prevalent material forms—roads, rails, pipes, and wires—infrastructure poses particular formal and narrative problems, often receding into the background as mere setting. To address how literary fiction theorizes the experience of infrastructure requires reading “infrastructurally”: that is, paying attention to the seemingly mundane interactions between characters and their built environments. The writers central to this project—James Joyce, William Faulkner, Karen Tei Yamashita, and Mohsin Hamid—take up the representational challenges posed by infrastructure by bringing transit networks, sanitation systems, and electrical grids and the histories of their development and use into the foreground. These writers call attention to the political dimensions of built environments, revealing the ways infrastructures produce, reinforce, and perpetuate racial and socioeconomic fault lines. They also attempt to formalize the material relations of power inscribed by and within infrastructure; the novel itself becomes an imaginary counterpart to the technologies of infrastructure, a form that shapes and constrains what types of social action and affiliation are possible

    Summer/Fall 2023

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    Pistons to pipelines: the relationship between aviation, oil and the development of the North

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    Thesis (M.A.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2023Infrastructure development in the North is tied directly to military and private explorations for oil, national defense, and the use of aviation that provided access to remote regions. World War II drove the initial infrastructure development in Northwest Canada and the North Slope of Alaska, which linked aviation to oil and provided access points for further Arctic development. The Cold War brought the military back to the Arctic, using existing infrastructure to construct the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, the largest construction project ever attempted in the North at that time. Aviation provided the transportation flexibility necessary to accomplish the project and expanded aviation infrastructure in the North. All of this coalesced with the exploration and discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay and the subsequent airlift that allowed rapid development of the oil field.Chapter 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Literature Review -- 1.2. Methodology and Literature Gap -- 1.2.1. Literature gap. Chapter 2. Oil for Aviation in the North -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. War Construction in the North -- 2.3. Resource Scarcity -- 2.4. A Land Route to Supply the Air Route -- 2.5. The Canol Pipeline Project -- 2.6. Canol Falters -- 2.7. Conclusion. Chapter 3. Aviation for Oil in the North -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. The Oil Standard -- 3.3. Naval Aviation's First Exploration in Alaska -- 3.4. North to Alaska! -- 3.5. Cat Trains, Umiat, and a Pipeline -- 3.6. Post-War Exploration -- 3.7. Exploration Slows to a Stop -- 3.8. Aviation Accidents in the Reserve -- 3.9. Conclusion. Chapter 4. DEWing the Impossible -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Exposed Flank -- 4.3. Aircraft to the Canadian North -- 4.4. DEW Line Legacy -- 4.5. The Globemaster -- 4.6. DEW Line in Alaska -- 4.7. Interior Airways -- 4.8. Helicopters Take Flight -- 4.9. Conclusion. Chapter 5. Aviation and Oil Come of Age -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. Oil Discovered on the Kenai -- 5.3. Rotor Blades and Oil Rigs -- 5.4. Planes, No Trains, and Inefficient Routes for Automobiles -- 5.5. The Black Gold Rush -- 5.6. ANCSA, NEPA, and the Pipeline -- 5.7. Conclusion. Chapter 6. Conclusion -- Bibliography

    The Digital Transformation Roadmap

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    Southern Adventist University Undergraduate Catalog 2022-2023

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    Southern Adventist University\u27s undergraduate catalog for the academic year 2022-2023.https://knowledge.e.southern.edu/undergrad_catalog/1121/thumbnail.jp

    An Exploration of an Original Young Adult Novel: The Ways in Which Story Structure, Magical Realism and Fictionalized History Enhance Reader Engagement

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    This dissertation provides a detailed exploration of my creative process in the development and writing of my original young adult historical novel. Using excerpts from my narrative, I explore elements of craft, giving particular attention to the mining of ideas, the three-act structure, character development, chapter arcs and plot points. These features are discussed in relation to the ways in which they engage the adolescent and enrich the reading experience. Magical realism is investigated with regard to how it is incorporated into my narrative. This writing also includes an overview of how historical fiction is relevant for the modern reader. I outline my classroom strategies for encouraging students to appreciate young adult literature and generate their own creative writing in this genre