447,675 research outputs found

    Atypical eye contact in autism: Models, mechanisms and development

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    An atypical pattern of eye contact behaviour is one of the most significant symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Recent empirical advances have revealed the developmental, cognitive and neural basis of atypical eye contact behaviour in ASD. We review different models and advance a new ‘fast-track modulator model’. Specifically, we propose that atypical eye contact processing in ASD originates in the lack of influence from a subcortical face and eye contact detection route, which is hypothesized to modulate eye contact processing and guide its emergent specialization during development

    Atypical parkinsonism: An Update.

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    Purpose of review: This update discusses novel aspects on genetics, diagnosis, and treatments of atypical parkinsonism published over the past 2 years. Recent findings: A genome-wide association study identified new genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy and new genetic conditions presenting with atypical parkinsonism have been described. The clinical criteria for diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration have been revised, and for progressive supranuclear palsy are under revision. Novel molecular techniques to identify possible biomarkers, as in other neurodegenerative disorders, have started being studied on atypical parkinsonian conditions, and although preliminary results seem promising, further studies are urgently warranted. Therapeutic trials based on disease-specific targets have shown no clinical improvement. Summary: The knowledge obtained recently on atypical parkinsonian conditions points out the major deficits in this field. With the expanding phenotypical spectrum of atypical parkinsonian conditions, the early identification of patients has become difficult. The inability of conventional methods to identify these disorders earlier and better than clinicians, and the recent failure of promising therapeutic compounds, highlight the fact that the lack of biomarkers is probably the greatest limitation for developing treatments for these disorders. Thus, current and future research in this direction will be crucial

    Making the italian labor market more flexible: an evaluation of the treu reform

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    The Treu Law introduced temporary contracts and extended the applicability of fixed-term contracts in order to increase the flexibility of the labour market and to reduce unemployment. The paper inquires whether the reform has affected the duration dependence related to the out-flow from non-employment, how previous atypical contract experiences affect the probability of finding a stable job and if the probability of flowing toward a permanent contract is higher moving from a non-working state rather than from an atypical job. Applying a Mixed Proportional Hazard (MPH) model with competing risk to a sub-sample drawn from the WHIP dataset, I estimate the hazard rate for the state transitions. My main findings predict an increase in negative duration dependence for non-working state out-flow, meaning an amplification of the short-term unemployed - long-term unemployed duality. It is a consequence of the larger use of atypical contracts, that would provide a screening instrument for the hiring choices of firms. Previous atypical job experiences play a negative effect on the probability of moving toward a stable job if the origin state is a non-working condition, while they have a positive role in the transition toward an atypical job. Besides, there is no evidences that the probability of finding a permanent contract is higher for workers who move from an atypical contract rather from a non-working state. Finally, a human capital accumulation effect is found to explain the transition toward a stable job. Policy recommendations include promotion of longer contracts, implementation of training programs and services to facilitate job-search

    Unpacking estimates of task duration: The role of typicality and temporality

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    Research in task duration judgment has shown that unpacking a multifaceted task into components prior to estimating its duration increases estimates. In three studies, we find that unpacking a complex task can increase, decrease, or leave unaffected task duration estimates depending on the typicality of the unpacked components and their temporal position in the task sequence. Unpacking atypical long components increases task duration estimates, while unpacking atypical short components decreases estimates (Study 1). Unpacking atypical early components increases task duration estimates, while unpacking atypical late components decreases estimates (Study 2). Unpacking typical early or late components leaves estimates unaffected (Study 3). We explain these results based on the idea that task duration estimation involves a mental simulation process, and by drawing on theories of unpacking in probability judgment that emphasize the role of the typicality of the unpacked components. These findings hint at a deep conceptual link between probability judgment and task duration estimation but also show differences, such as the influence that temporality exerts on estimated duration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc

    Effects of haloperidol and atypical neuroleptics on psychomotor performance and driving ability in schizophrenic patients - Results from an experimental study

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    The influence of antipsychotic treatment on the neuropsychological and psychomotor performance of schizophrenic patients is still a subject of investigation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of atypical neuroleptics in comparison with a conventional dopamine antagonist neuroleptic (haloperidol) on several dimensions of psychomotor performance (visual perception, attention, reaction time, and sensorimotor performance) considered to be of relevance in evaluating driving fitness. Psychomotor performance was assessed by means of the ART 90, a computerized Act and React Test which is generally used in diagnosis of psychomotor performance. The 49 participating patients were examined at discharge following psychopathological stabilisation; 20 received haloperidol, 29 received an atypical neuroleptic. Our findings demonstrate a remarkably reduced psychomotor performance in the haloperidol-treated group of schizophrenic patients compared with patients treated with atypical neuroleptics. Only 1 (5%) subject passed all subtests without major failures and could be regarded as competent to drive. Among patients with atypical neuroleptics, 7 patients (24%) passed all test parameters without major failures. Copyright (C) 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Why vocal production of atypical sounds in apes and its cerebral correlates have a lot to say about the origin of language

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    Ackermann et al. mentioned the "acquisition of species-atypical sounds" in apes without any discussions. In our commentary, we demonstrate that these atypical sounds in chimpanzees not only include laryngeal sounds but also have a major significance regarding the origins of language, if we consider looking at their context of use, their social properties, their relations with gestures, their lateralization and their neurofunctional correlates as well

    Atypical Work and Employment Continuity

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    Atypical employment arrangements such as agency temporary work and contracting have long been criticized as offering more precarious and unstable work than regular employment. Using data from two datasets – the CAEAS and the NLSY79 – we determine whether workers who take such jobs rather than regular employment, or the alternative of continued job search, subsequently experience greater or lesser employment continuity. Observed differences between the various working arrangements are starkest when we do not account for unobserved individual heterogeneity. Controlling for the latter, we report that the advantage of regular work over atypical work and atypical work over continued joblessness dissipates.employment continuity, open-ended work, atypical work, unemployment, inactivity

    Are Protein Folds Atypical?

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    Protein structures are a very special class among all possible structures. It was suggested that a ``designability principle'' plays a crucial role in nature's selection of protein sequences and structures. Here we provide a theoretical base for such a selection principle, using a novel formulation of the protein folding problem based on hydrophobic interactions. A structure is reduced to a string of 0's and 1's which represent the surface and core sites, respectively, as the backbone is traced. Each structure is therefore associated with one point in a high dimensional space. Sequences are represented by strings of their hydrophobicities and thus can be mapped into the same space. A sequence which lies closer to a particular structure in this space than to any other structures will have that structure as its ground state. Atypical structures, namely those far away from other structures in the high dimensional space, have more sequences which fold into them, and are thermodynamically more stable. We argue that the most common folds of proteins are the most atypical in the space of possible structures.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure