47,733 research outputs found

    Crime and Prejudice: Ming Criminal Justice as Seen in 16th Century Spanish Sources

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    胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨于1585年出版的 《中华大帝国史》第一次以西班牙语和葡萄 牙语全面整理了有关中国的记述。该书正面 记录了中国明朝司法制度,并探讨了这些司 法制度与当代西班牙和墨西哥司法制度之间 的巨大差别。其中包括对法律和公共框架的 曲解,公众对证人的质疑,多层面不同形式 的惩罚,经济上的惩罚以及死刑的场景。作 者在书中强调通过奖励和惩罚双重方式对各 级官员、下属大臣进行严格控制,以保证对 各级官员的选拔任用标准,这一点也曾在蒙 田对明代官员的评价中得到过体现。此外, 胡安•冈萨雷斯•德•门多萨还十分崇敬守护印 第安人的拉斯卡萨斯,他决定从他的文献中 删掉那些为对抗中国而向强硬派提供的所谓 正当权利的论辩,如洛阿尔卡所目睹的邪恶 和杜拉埃尼亚所描述的死刑等。 González de Mendoza’s book on China, published in 1585, compiled all the first narratives about China, both Portuguese and Spanish. It contains a highly positive account of Ming criminal justice in which he emphasizes those elements of Chinese justice that deeply contrasts with Spanish and Mexican practices: the legal and public frame of torture, the public questioning of witnesses, the multilayered revisions of penalties, the public placing of the monetary fines, and the mise en scène of the death penalty. He insistently highlights the strict control upon every layer of officers and inferior ministers through a double procedure of rewards and punishments that guarantees the high standing of Chinese officials, an appraisal that Montaigne would pick up in his extremely rare allusions to China. At the same time, González de Mendoza, a thorough admirer of father Las Casas, the defender of Indians, decided to omit from his sources those elements that could provide the hardliners with arguments, the just title, to confront China, such as the nefandous sin witnessed by Loarca and the death by a thousand cuts described by Dueñas

    Supporting girls and young women victims of sexual harassment in schools : "me and you and everyone we know"

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    This article highlights an innovative project, across three European countries (Italy, Sweden and Romania), that used a pictorial co-design educational tool to empower young women to counter sexual harassment and abuse. Data is very hard to obtain on levels of sexual harassment and the project revealed that there was a need to educate female and male students, as well as professionals of its long-term impact. The co-designed cards generated discussion and comments both with the young participants and educational professionals. Focus groups were organised in the three countries with students using the co-design tool. What emerged from those focus groups are different attitudes towards sexual harassment and how this may affect girls and young women in the three participating countries. This article reflects upon the use of a transnational co-design tool to prevent sexual harassment and abuse in schools. The main aim was to promote a dialogue with young people on the complexity of issues surrounding this topic in order to promote change in this area. Findings from this project revealed that there was much variation between the three countries in a number of important areas, such as the support and knowledge base on the issue

    Towards a sociology of conspiracy theories: An investigation into conspiratorial thinking on Dönmes

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    This thesis investigates the social and political significance of conspiracy theories, which has been an academically neglected topic despite its historical relevance. The academic literature focuses on the methodology, social significance and political impacts of these theories in a secluded manner and lacks empirical analyses. In response, this research provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for conspiracy theories by considering their methodology, political impacts and social significance in the light of empirical data. Theoretically, the thesis uses Adorno's semi-erudition theory along with Girardian approach. It proposes that conspiracy theories are methodologically semi-erudite narratives, i.e. they are biased in favour of a belief and use reason only to prove it. It suggests that conspiracy theories appear in times of power vacuum and provide semi-erudite cognitive maps that relieve alienation and ontological insecurities of people and groups. In so doing, they enforce social control over their audience due to their essentialist, closed-to-interpretation narratives. In order to verify the theory, the study analyses empirically the social and political significance of conspiracy theories about the Dönme community in Turkey. The analysis comprises interviews with conspiracy theorists, conspiracy theory readers and political parties, alongside a frame analysis of the popular conspiracy theory books on Dönmes. These confirm the theoretical framework by showing that the conspiracy theories are fed by the ontological insecurities of Turkish society. Hence, conspiracy theorists, most readers and some political parties respond to their own ontological insecurities and political frustrations through scapegoating Dönmes. Consequently, this work shows that conspiracy theories are important symptoms of society, which, while relieving ontological insecurities, do not provide politically prolific narratives

    The Professional Identity of Doctors who Provide Abortions: A Sociological Investigation

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    Abortion is a medicalised problem in England and Wales, where the law places doctors at the centre of legal provision and puts doctors in control of who has an abortion. However, the sex-selection abortion scandal of 2012 presented a very real threat to 'abortion doctors', when the medical profession's values and practices were questioned in the media, society and by Members of Parliament. Doctors found themselves at the centre of a series of claims that stated doctors were acting both illegally and unethically, driven by profit rather than patient needs. Yet, the perspectives of those doctors who provide abortions has been under-researched; this thesis aims to fill that gap by examining the beliefs and values of this group of doctors. Early chapters highlight the ambiguous position of the abortion provider in Britain, where doctors are seen as a collective group of professionals motivated by medical dominance and medical autonomy. They outline how this position is then questioned and contested, with doctors being presented as unethical. By studying abortion at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels, this thesis seeks to better understand the values of the 'abortion doctor', and how these levels shape the work and experiences of abortion providers in England and Wales. This thesis thus addresses the question: 'What do abortion doctors' accounts of their professional work suggest about the contemporary dynamics of the medicalisation of abortion in Britain?'. It investigates the research question using a qualitative methodological approach: face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 47 doctors who provide abortions in England and Wales. The findings from this empirical study show how doctors' values are linked to how they view the 'normalisation of abortion'. At the macro-level doctors, openly resisted the medicalisation of abortion through the position ascribed to them by the legal framework, yet at the meso-level doctors construct an identity where normalising abortion is based on further medicalising services. Finally, at the micro-level, the ambiguous position of the abortion provider is further identified in terms of being both a proud provider and a stigmatised individual. This thesis shows that while the existing medicalisation literature has some utility, it has limited explanatory power when investigating the problem of abortion. The thesis thus provides some innovative insights into the relevance and value of medicalisation through a comprehensive study on doctors' values, beliefs and practices

    Las elasticidades de comercio internacional como una teoría general sobre el desarrollo económico

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    El trabajo analiza los enfoques teóricos de Thirlwall y Houthakker-Magee-Krugman que han sido considerados como modelos opuestos o sustitutos en lugar de complementarios, basados en las elasticidades de comercio internacional. Mientras que el primero se apoya en la demanda el segundo lo hace desde la oferta. A través de una descripción general sobre ambos modelos, el artículo señala que existen muchos puntos en común y que una teoría general sobre el desarrollo económico puede construirse sobre las elasticidades de comercio. El éxito asiático y la trampa del ingreso medio que enfrenta América Latina tienen como fundamento las elasticidades ingresos de exportaciones, elevadas en la primera región y reducidas en la segunda (lo opuesto sucede con las elasticidades ingresos de importaciones). Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas lecciones para países en desarrollo sobre el rol de las elasticidades de comercio para explicar las divergencias y convergencias en los niveles de renta de las nacione

    Desarrollo de materiales bioactivos con potencial aplicación odontológica mediante impregnación asistida por CO2 supercrítico

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    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2021En esta tesis se estudió el proceso de incorporación de eugenol en fibras de poliamida 6 (PA6) mediante la impregnación asistida por CO2 supercrítico para desarrollar un material con propiedades antimicrobianas con una potencial aplicación odontológica. Para este propósito, se construyó un equipo de alta presión en el que se llevaron a cabo múltiples ensayos de impregnación de eugenol y de sorción de CO2 en un hilo dental comercial de PA6 en distintas condiciones de presión y temperatura (40 – 60 °C y 8 – 12 MPa). Con el fin de encontrar las mejores condiciones del proceso de impregnación, se evaluó la influencia de diferentes variables operativas (presión, temperatura, tiempo de contacto y velocidad de despresurización) sobre la cantidad de eugenol impregnada en el material. Además, se estudiaron los principales fenómenos difusivos que ocurren en el proceso de impregnación del eugenol en condiciones supercríticas. Para ello, se hicieron ensayos de cinética de sorción del CO2 y del eugenol en PA6 a diferentes condiciones de presión y temperatura y se determinó el coeficiente de difusión aparente para ambas especies en este polímero. Por otra parte, se evaluaron las propiedades finales del material impregnado, analizando las propiedades mecánicas, térmicas y morfológicas del material original, presurizado con CO2 e impregnado con eugenol. Adicionalmente se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del material impregnado frente a dos bacterias comunes (Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus). Asimismo, se estudió la migración del compuesto activo impregnado en aire y en saliva artificial, obteniendo datos importantes para el potencial desarrollo de un producto comercial, como la estimación de la vida útil, el tipo de envase, y tipo de aplicación del producto. Finalmente, se hizo un diseño y dimensionamiento de un proceso industrial para la impregnación de eugenol en bobinas de fibras de PA6 en CO2 supercrítico, a partir de los datos de eficiencia de impregnación y parámetros difusivos del hilo impregnado con eugenol previamente obtenidos, realizando el diseño de la bobina, el equipo impregnador y los cálculos de sus principales requerimientos de masa y energía.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, José Euliser. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales; Argentina.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, José Euliser. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos y Química Aplicada; Argentina

    What is the importance of sperm subpopulations?

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    .The study of sperm subpopulations spans three decades. The origin, meaning, and practical significance, however, are less clear. Current technology for assessing sperm morphology (CASA-Morph) and motility (CASA-Mot) has enabled the accurate evaluation of these features, and there are many options for data classification. Subpopulations could occur as a result of the stage of development of each spermatozoon in the subpopulation. Spermatogenesis might contribute to the production of these subpopulations. Insights from evolutionary biology and recent molecular research are indicative of the diversity among male gametes that could occur from unequal sharing of transcripts and other elements through cytoplasmic bridges between spermatids. Sperm cohorts exiting the gonads would contain different RNA and protein contents, affecting the spermatozoon physiology and associations with the surrounding environmental milieu. Subsequently, these differences could affect how spermatozoa interact with the environmental milieu (maturation, mixing with seminal plasma, and interacting with the environmental milieu, or female genital tract and female gamete). The emergence of sperm subpopulations as an outcome of evolution, related to the reproductive strategies of the species, genital tract structures, and copulatory and fertilization processes. This kind of approach in determining the importance of sperm subpopulations in fertilization capacity should have a practical impact for conducting reproductive technologies, inspiring and enabling new ways for the more efficient use of spermatozoa in the medical, animal breeding, and conservation fields. This manuscript is a contribution to the Special Issue in memory of Dr. Duane GarnerS

    Women’s Experiences of Accessing Breastfeeding and Perinatal Health Support in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: An Interpretive Description Study

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    Background: Women experiencing intimate partner violence are at a heightened risk of negative perinatal and breastfeeding outcomes. This study explored the experiences of accessing breastfeeding support for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. A study of five in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed at 12-weeks postpartum with breastfeeding mothers with a history of intimate partner violence. Findings: Women expressed difficulties in accessing a healthcare provider who had specialized skill in breastfeeding support. Trust in their healthcare provider, built through displays of compassion and competence, was important to mitigate obstacles experienced during care access for this population. Trauma-and-violence-informed care principles were beneficial to the development of the therapeutic relationship in perinatal care. Women placed value on breastfeeding support received from both healthcare providers and social supports, which impacted mothers’ perceived breastfeeding support and self-efficacy. Further, mothers described increased levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy after engaging in a trauma-and-violence-informed care program aimed at supporting breastfeeding. Conclusions: Trauma-informed care may aid in the development of trust in the therapeutic relationship, which in turn impacts access to breastfeeding support and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The inclusion of trauma-and-violence informed principles in perinatal care may be effective at mitigating barriers to access for women who endorse a history of intimate partner violence. health care on how to employ trauma-informed breastfeeding care to may lead to better support for this population

    “We Really are Seeing Racism in the Hospitals”: Racism and Doula Care

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    Introduction: Poor birth outcomes are more prevalent for Black birthing people and their babies. Strong evidence shows that doula care, during labor and delivery, improves maternal and child health outcomes. Yet little is documented about racial differences, discrimination, and equity in doula care. Methods: Between November 2020 and January 2021, 17 surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted with doulas in Georgia as part of the community-based participatory Georgia Doula Study, co-led by Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Georgia and academic researchers. The study objective was to describe the challenges and facilitators of providing doula care in Georgia. In the fall of 2021, additional measures on racism and discrimination in doula care were added to the survey and interview guide and previous participants were re-contacted. Results: Doula participants were diverse in age (41% 25-35, 35% 36-45, and 24% 46+) and race/ethnicity (53% white, 41% Black, 6% Latinx). Six of the seven (86%) Black doulas reported that more than 85% of their clientele is Black, while all of the eight white doulas reported that 50% or less of their clientele is Black. Three (18%) of the doulas indicated more than 10% of their clientele is Latinx, while only two (12%) indicated more than 10% of their clientele is Asian-American or Pacific Islander. Discrimination scores were 51.5 for Black doulas (standard deviation 7.55) 46.7 for white doulas (standard deviation 7.48). Doulas noted that the alarming maternal mortality rate for Black women and not always being listened to causes Black clients to be less trusting of medical staff, leaving them in need of advocates. Black doulas were passionate about serving and advocating with Black clients. Doulas also described how language and cultural barriers, particularly for Asian and Latinx birthing people, reduce clients’ ability to advocate for themselves, increasing the need for doulas. Conclusion: Black doulas are an essential tool for improving birth outcomes for Black women. Increasing access to doula care for Asian and Latinx communities could address language and cultural barriers that can negatively impact their maternal and child health outcomes

    De la sinophilie à la sinophobie ? : les femmes chinoises sous le regard des voyageurs européens aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles

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    Ce mémoire cherche à démontrer les liens qui existent entre la représentation des femmes chinoises et celle de la Chine en général aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. L’historiographie soutient qu’il y a une transition dans la manière de percevoir la Chine qui fait passer celle-ci de généralement positive à négative vers la fin du XVIIIe siècle. René Étiemble qualifie cette évolution de sinophilie/sinophobie et se base principalement sur les échanges philosophiques, scientifiques et théologiques entre la Chine et l’Europe. Ces concepts ont cependant été peu analysés sous l’angle du genre. M’appuyant sur les récits de voyages des diplomates et marchands de cette période, je défends que les représentations des Chinoises évoluent dans plusieurs directions : certaines d’entre elles s’inscrivent dans la mouvance de la sinophilie/sinophobie, alors que d’autres s’écartent de ce cadre théorique. Dans certains cas, la Chinoise devient un truchement par lequel on s’invente l’Empire du Milieu. Dans d’autres situations, la représentation des Chinoises se fait indépendamment de l’image de la Chine, et il convient donc de la concevoir autrement. En observant le corps des Chinoises, les rapports de genre dans le quotidien et la marginalité féminine, ce mémoire a la modeste prétention de vérifier la pertinence du modèle théorique d’Étiemble du point de vue des représentations de genre
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