5,970 research outputs found

    Feminisms in Movement: Theories and Practices from the Americas

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    Feminist movements from the Americas provide some of the most innovative, visible, and all-encompassing forms of organizing and resistance. With their diverse backgrounds, these movements address sexism, sexualized violence, misogyny, racism, homo- and transphobia, coloniality, extractivism, climate crisis, and neoliberal capitalist exploitation as well as the interrelations of these systems. Fighting interlocking axes of oppression, feminists from the Americas represent, practice, and theorize a truly "intersectional" politics. Feminisms in Movement: Theories and Practices from the Americas brings together a wide variety of perspectives and formats, spanning from the realms of arts and activism to academia. Black and decolonial feminist voices and queer/cuir perspectives, ecofeminist approaches and indigenous women's mobilizations inspire future feminist practices and inform social and cohabitation projects. With contributions from Rita Laura Segato, Mara Viveros Vigoya, Yuderkys Espinosa-Miñoso, and interviews with Anielle Franco (Brazilian activist and minister) and with the Chilean feminist collective LASTESIS

    Placental origins of health & disease:Therapeutic opportunities

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    Placental origins of health & disease:Therapeutic opportunities

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    Efecto de una intervención con videojuegos activos combinados con entrenamiento multicomponente en la condición física de niños y niñas con sobrepeso u obesidad: una propuesta disruptiva

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    Resumen generalIntroducciónLa obesidad infantil es un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial debido a su alta prevalencia y al impacto negativo que tiene en la salud traducido en un mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades respiratorias, cardiovasculares y cardiometabólicas, problemas psicosociales, peor rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de obesidad en la edad adulta. Se produce debido a un exceso de masa grasa consecuencia de un desequilibrio energético en el que la ingesta supera al gasto energético. Este desequilibrio está fomentado por la inactividad física y los comportamientos sedentarios característicos de la sociedad actual, por lo que el ejercicio físico será la mejor estrategia para prevenir y/o tratar la obesidad infantil, concretamente el entrenamiento concurrente combinando ejercicio aeróbico y ejercicio de fuerza. Sin embargo, la baja adherencia a los programas de ejercicio físico por parte de jóvenes con sobrepeso u obesidad limita su potencial o su efecto.Los videojuegos activos (VJA) requieren movimiento corporal y por consiguiente un gasto energético, por lo que pueden suponer una nueva y atractiva estrategia para promover la actividad física y por tanto la salud, aumentando el gasto energético, sustituyendo las conductas sedentarias y favoreciendo la mejora de la condición física. MetodologíaLa presente Tesis Doctoral está compuesta por 5 artículos científicos, compuestos por dos revisiones sistemáticas elaboradas a partir de las indicaciones de la guía PRISMA, y por 3 estudios originales del proyecto ¿Videojuegos activos frente a la obesidad y el sedentarismo en niños y niñas de 9 a 11 años: una propuesta disruptiva¿. La muestra final fue de 66 niños/as con sobrepeso u obesidad, de los cuales 31 tienen mediciones pre-intervención y post-intervención. El estudio longitudinal incluyó a 21 niños/as en el grupo de intervención con VJA y a 8 niños/as en el grupo control. Se evaluó la antropometría y la composición corporal, la condición cardiorrespiratoria y muscular, el nivel de actividad física y el gasto energético durante las sesiones, la habilidad motriz (del grupo intervención con VJA), la madurez sexual, varios parámetros bioquímicos, la presión arterial y la dieta y hábitos nutricionales. El programa de intervención con VJA tuvo una duración de 5 meses, con una frecuencia de 3 sesiones por semana de 60 minutos cada una, y se controló la intensidad a través de la frecuencia cardíaca. El diseño del programa combinó VJA usando 5 dispositivos diferentes (Nintendo Wii®, Xbox Kinect®, esterillas de baile, BKOOL® ciclosimulador y Nintendo Ring Fit Adventures®) con ejercicio multicomponente. El objetivo fue evaluar la efectividad de una intervención de ejercicio físico con VJA combinados con ejercicio multicomponente para aumentar el gasto energético y mejorar la condición física y habilidad motriz en niños/as prepuberales con sobrepeso u obesidad. ResultadosLa evidencia científica resumida en las revisiones sistemáticas con meta-análisis realizadas muestra efectos positivos de intervenciones con VJA en el peso, el índice de masa corporal (IMC), Z-Score de IMC, el porcentaje de grasa corporal y la masa grasa de la población infantil, sobre todo aquellos con sobrepeso u obesidad. Los resultados son menos claros para la condición cardiorrespiratoria, con mejoras en niños/as con peso saludable, pero sin posibilidad de realizar análisis cuantitativo con la población infantil con sobrepeso u obesidad. La evidencia científica tampoco esclarece los efectos de los VJA en la fuerza muscular ni en la habilidad motriz, y aunque los VJA parecen tener el potencial para mejorar la fuerza y habilidad motriz, no se pudieron realizar análisis cuantitativos. La intervención de ejercicio físico con VJA combinados con ejercicio multicomponente produjo un gasto calórico de entre 4.35 y 5.68 kcal/min y mejoró la composición corporal de los niños/as con una disminución del porcentaje de grasa corporal y del Z-Score del IMC. También mejoró la condición cardiorrespiratoria en intensidades submáximas, disminuyendo significativamente la frecuencia cardíaca y el consumo de oxígeno (VO2) y los porcentajes de VO2 durante las etapas submáximas del test máximo. Además, el grupo de intervención con VJA mostró una mejora significativa en los test de fuerza y en la habilidad motriz, con un aumento significativo de la altura de salto en CMJ y de los kilos de fuerza en la dinamometría manual.ConclusiónLos VJA son efectivos para reducir o controlar el peso, el IMC y la grasa corporal, especialmente en niños/as con sobrepeso u obesidad, y parecen ser potencialmente efectivos para mejorar la condición física y la habilidad motriz. Una intervención de ejercicio físico con VJA combinados con ejercicio multicomponente es efectiva para aumentar el gasto energético y mejorar la condición física y habilidad motriz en niños/as prepuberales con sobrepeso u obesidad. <br /

    How well do UK assistantships equip medical students for graduate practice? Think EPAs

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    The goal of better medical student preparation for clinical practice drives curricular initiatives worldwide. Learning theory underpins Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) as a means of safe transition to independent practice. Regulators mandate senior assistantships to improve practice readiness. It is important to know whether meaningful EPAs occur in assistantships, and with what impact. Final year students at one UK medical school kept learning logs and audio-diaries for six one-week periods during a year-long assistantship. Further data were also obtained through interviewing participants when students and after three months as junior doctors. This was combined with data from new doctors from 17 other UK schools. Realist methods explored what worked for whom and why. 32 medical students and 70 junior doctors participated. All assistantship students reported engaging with EPAs but gaps in the types of EPAs undertaken exist, with level of entrustment and frequency of access depending on the context. Engagement is enhanced by integration into the team and shared understanding of what constitutes legitimate activities. Improving the shared understanding between student and supervisor of what constitutes important assistantship activity may result in an increase in the amount and/or quality of EPAs achieved

    The human placenta: new perspectives on its formation and function during early pregnancy

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    The placenta has evolved to support the development of the embryo and fetus during the different intrauterine periods of life. By necessity, its development must precede that of the embryo. There is now evidence that during embryogenesis and organogenesis, the development of the human placenta is supported by histotrophic nutrition secreted from endometrial glands rather than maternal blood. These secretions provide a plentiful supply of glucose, lipids, glycoproteins and growth factors that stimulate rapid proliferation and differentiation of the villous trophoblast. Furthermore, evidence from endometrial gland organoids indicates that expression and secretion of these products are upregulated following sequential exposure to oestrogen, progesterone and trophoblastic and decidual hormones, in particular prolactin. Hence, a feed-forward signalling dialogue is proposed among the trophoblast, decidua and glands that enables the placenta to stimulate its own development, independent of that of the embryo. Many common complications of pregnancy represent a spectrum of disorders associated with deficient trophoblast proliferation. Increasing evidence suggests that this spectrum is mirrored by one of impaired decidualization, potentially compromising histotroph secretion through diminished prolactin secretion and reduced gland function. Optimizing endometrial wellbeing prior to conception may therefore help to prevent common pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage, growth restriction and pre-eclampsia

    Designs of Blackness

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    Across more than two centuries Afro-America has created a huge and dazzling variety of literary self-expression. Designs of Blackness provides less a narrative literary history than, precisely, a series of mappings—each literary-critical and comparative while at the same time offering cultural and historical context. This carefully re-edited version of the 1998 publication opens with an estimation of earliest African American voice in the names of Phillis Wheatley and her contemporaries. It then takes up the huge span of autobiography from Frederick Douglass through to Maya Angelou. "Harlem on My Mind," which follows, sets out the literary contours of America’s premier black city. Womanism, Alice Walker’s presiding term, is given full due in an analysis of fiction from Harriet E. Wilson to Toni Morrison. Richard Wright is approached not as some regulation "realist" but as a more inward, at times near-surreal, author. Decadology has its risks but the 1940s has rarely been approached as a unique era of war and peace and especially in African American texts. Beat Generation work usually adheres to Ginsberg and Kerouac, but black Beat writing invites its own chapter in the names of Amiri Baraka, Ted Joans and Bob Kaufman. The 1960s has long become a mythic change-decade, and in few greater respects than as a black theatre both of the stage and politics. In Leon Forrest African America had a figure of the postmodern turn: his work is explored in its own right and for how it takes its place in the context of other reflexive black fiction. "African American Fictions of Passing" unpacks the whole deceptive trope of "race" in writing from Williams Wells Brown through to Charles Johnson. The two newly added chapters pursue African American literary achievement into the Obama-Trump century, fiction from Octavia Butler to Darryl Pinkney, poetry from Rita Dove to Kevin Young

    Patients with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria have a reduced brain glycolytic capability that is correlated with brain atrophy

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    IntroductionPatients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) demonstrate brain alterations, including white matter lesions and cerebral atrophy. In this case–control study, we investigated if a reason for this atrophy could be because of diabetes-related complications affecting cerebrovascular or cerebral glycolytic functions. Cerebral physiological dysfunction can lead to energy deficiencies and, consequently, neurodegeneration.MethodsWe examined 33 patients with T1D [18 females, mean age: 50.8 years (range: 26–72)] and 19 matched healthy controls [7 females, mean age: 45.0 years (range: 24–64)]. Eleven (33%) of the patients had albuminuria. Total brain volume, brain parenchymal fraction, gray matter volume and white matter volume were measured by anatomical MRI. Cerebral vascular and glycolytic functions were investigated by measuring global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral lactate concentration in response to the inhalation of hypoxic air (12-14% fractional oxygen) using phase-contrast MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The inspiration of hypoxic air challenges both cerebrovascular and cerebral glycolytic physiology, and an impaired response will reveal a physiologic dysfunction.ResultsPatients with T1D and albuminuria had lower total brain volume, brain parenchymal fraction, and gray matter volume than healthy controls and patients without albuminuria. The inhalation of hypoxic air increased CBF and lactate in all groups. Patients with albuminuria had a significantly (p = 0.032) lower lactate response compared to healthy controls. The CBF response was lower in patients with albuminuria compared to healthy controls, however not significantly (p = 0.24) different. CMRO2 was unaffected by the hypoxic challenge in all groups (p &gt; 0.16). A low lactate response was associated with brain atrophy, characterized by reduced total brain volume (p = 0.003) and reduced gray matter volume (p = 0.013).DiscussionWe observed a reduced response of the lactate concentration as an indication of impaired glycolytic activity, which correlated with brain atrophy. Inadequacies in upregulating cerebral glycolytic activity, perhaps from reduced glucose transporters in the brain or hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathway dysfunction, could be a complication in diabetes contributing to the development of neurodegeneration and declining brain health
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