49,941 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the Physical Stability of Zinc Oxide Suspensions Containing Sodium Poly-(acrylate) and Sodium Dodecylsulfate.

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    The physical stability of zinc oxide (ZnO) aqueous suspensions has been monitored during two months by different methods of investigation. The suspensions were formulated with ZnO at a fixed concentration (5 wt%), sodium poly-(acrylate), as a viscosifier, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), as a wetting agent. The rheological study shows that the suspensions exhibit a non-Newtonian, most often shear-thinning behavior and their apparent viscosity increases with polymer concentration. The rheograms of most of the ZnO suspensions do not vary during the experimental period. The viscoelastic properties of these suspensions, such as elastic or storage modulus (G′), viscous or loss modulus (G″) and phase angle (δ) were also examined. For% strains lower than 10%, all the formulations show strong elastic properties (G′ > G″, δ varies between 5 and 15°). Beyond 10% strain, the rheological behavior changes progressively from elastic to viscous (G″ > G′ for % strain >80%). Consistently, δ increases and reaches the 50–70° zone. Multiple light scattering (back-scattered intensity), measured with the Turbiscan ags, was used to characterize suspension physical stability (early detection of particle or aggregate size variations and particle/aggregate migration phenomena). Suspensions containing 0.4 and 0.6 wt% polymer remain stable and macroscopically homogeneous, without being affected by the change of particle size observed with a laser particle sizer. Sedimentation tests, pH, and ζ potential measurements versus time, also confirmed these findings

    Production of pure metals

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    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner

    Irreversible Aging Dynamics and Generic Phase Behavior of Aqueous Suspensions of Laponite

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    In this work we study the aging behavior of aqueous suspension of Laponite having 2.8 weight % concentration using rheological tools. At various salt concentration all the samples demonstrate orientational order when observed using crossed polarizers. In rheological experiments we observe inherent irreversibility in the aging dynamics which forces the system not to rejuvenate to the same state in the shear melting experiment carried out at a later date since preparation. The extensive rheological experiments carried out as a function of time elapsed since preparation demonstrate the self similar trend in the aging behavior irrespective of the concentration of salt. We observe that the exploration of the low energy states as a function of aging time is only kinetically affected by the presence of salt. We estimate that the energy barrier to attain the low energy states decreases linearly with increase in the concentration of salt. The observed superposition of all the elapsed time and the salt concentration dependent data suggests that the aging that occurs in low salt concentration systems over a very long period is qualitatively similar to the aging behavior observed in systems with high salt concentration over a shorter period.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figures. Langmuir, in pres

    Iron oxide nanoparticles fabricated by electric explosion of wire: Focus on magnetic nanofluids

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    Nanoparticles of iron oxides (MNPs) were prepared using the electric explosion of wire technique (EEW). The main focus was on the fabrication of de-aggregated spherical nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. According to XRD the major crystalline phase was magnetite with an average diameter of MNPs, depending on the fraction. Further separation of air-dry EEW nanoparticles was performed in aqueous suspensions. In order to provide the stability of magnetite suspension in water, we found the optimum concentration of the electrostatic stabilizer (sodium citrate and optimum pH level) based on zeta-potential measurements. The stable suspensions still contained a substantial fraction of aggregates which were disintegrated by the excessive ultrasound treatment. The separation of the large particles out of the suspension was performed by centrifuging. The structural features, magnetic properties and microwave absorption of MNPs and their aqueous solutions confirm that we were able to obtain an ensemble in which the magnetic contributions come from the spherical MNPs. The particle size distribution in fractionated samples was narrow and they showed a similar behaviour to that expected of the superparamagnetic ensemble. Maximum obtained concentration was as high as 5 % of magnetic material (by weight). Designed assembly of de-aggregated nanoparticles is an example of on-purpose developed magnetic nanofluid. Copyright © 2012 Author(s)