33,761 research outputs found

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Universal Challenges of Policing Rooted in Colonialism in the United States and Nigeria

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    Growing awareness regarding police brutality has generated a massive shift in public views on police institutions and the need for reform. The universal challenges of police authority, abuse, and impunity plague policing institutions across the globe. The roots of many of these contemporary challenges can be traced to European colonization. This paper explores policing structures, abuse, and impunity in the United States and Nigeria

    Imagination as Thought in Aristotle\u27s De Anima

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    Aristotle appears to indicate in various passages in the De Anima that imagination is a kind of thought, and my thesis attempts to make some sense out of this claim. I examine three possible interpretations of the claim that imagination is a kind of thought and eliminate two of them. The first states that Aristotle only calls imagination a kind of thought in a superficial “in name only” sense. The second, more radical interpretation, identifies images as the most basic kind of thoughts. My final chapter defends a more moderate position—inspired by Avempace and the early Averroes—which steers between the superficial and radical interpretations, by construing the formal content of images as a sort of quasi-corporeal substrate for the generation of learned thoughts

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‘non-health’ government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario’s Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario’s Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‘non-health’ ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions – namely, Québec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‘due diligence’, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‘lessons learned’ from case articles specific to Québec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‘policy elites’ and ‘political culture’), implementation (‘jurisdiction’), and sustained implementation (‘institutional power’). This work provides important insights into ‘real life’ policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    The value of local food partnerships: Covid and beyond

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    The Covid-19 pandemic, and – more recently – soaring food prices have focused attention on how local areas meet the challenges of a fractured food system. This report examines the impacts andachievements of Local Food Partnerships (LFPs) and how LFPs embed and amplify their work to deliver both local and national food priorities. LFPs have been uniquely placed to provide systems leadership and practical solutions through the strategic direction and support of the UK-wide Sustainable Food Places (SFP) programme, established a decade prior to the pandemic. LFPs have been able to pivot to respond with agility to an extended period of national crisis and have moved forward to offer a coherent framework for the transition of local food system. The four dimensions of ‘effectiveness’,‘efficiency’, ‘engagement’, and ‘equity’ highlight the value of LFPs to fill the leadership gap on local food issues

    The Colston Statue: What Next? ‘We are Bristol’ History Commission - Full Report

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    In the summer of 2021, the ‘We are Bristol’ History Commission consulted with the public about the future of the Colston statue and the Colston plinth. People had a chance to see the statue and learn about its history in a temporary display at the M Shed museum, as well as view the display online. Alongside the display was a survey that invited people from Bristol and beyond to share their views on a number of questions. Almost 14,000 people filled out the survey. The Mayor asked the History Commission to review the consultation and offer a number of recommendations in the light of it. This report summarizes the findings and also suggests what might happen next

    EVALUACIÓN ANALGÉSICA PERIOPERATORIA DEL ACETAMINOFÉN EN PERRAS SOMETIDAS A OVARIOHISTERECTOMÍA ELECTIVA

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    Tesis de doctorado que evalúa el efecto analgésico del acetaminofén en perras ovarihisterectomizadas.La administración de analgésicos antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINES) para el control del dolor post-quirúrgico en perros es una práctica común, debido a sus efectos analgésicos, antiinflamatorios y antipiréticos. En el presente trabajo se realizaron dos estudios. En el experimento 1, el objetivo fue evaluar la analgesia post-operatoria del acetaminofén (paracetamol) a través de la utilización de las escalas de reconocimiento clínico del dolor DIVAS (Escala Dinámica e Interactiva Analógica Visual) y UMPS (Escala de la Universidad de Melbourne), en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva. Además de valorar la seguridad y eficacia clínica del uso del acetaminofén en perros mediante pruebas de funcionamiento hepático y renal en el post-operatorio inmediato. Para ello, se utilizaron 30 perras de diferentes razas que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los tres grupos de tratamiento: acetaminofén [GACET; n=10, 15 mg kg-1 intravenoso (IV)], carprofeno (GCARP; n=10, 4 mg kg-1 IV) y meloxicam (GMELOX; n=10, 0.2 mg kg-1 IV). Todos los tratamientos se administraron 30 minutos antes de la cirugía y posterior a esta durante 48 horas. En este período el acetaminofén se administró por vía oral cada 8 horas (15 mg kg-1); el carprofeno (4 mg kg-1) y el meloxicam (0.1 mg kg-1) se administraron por vía IV cada 24 horas. Durante el postoperatorio, los sistemas de puntuación del dolor DIVAS y UMPS fueron medidos a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36 y 48 horas post-cirugía. Para evaluar la seguridad clínica de los tratamientos, se recolectaron muestras de sangre de la vena yugular para realizar la medición de enzimas ALT, AST, ALP, y los metabolitos bilirrubina directa, bilirrubina indirecta, bilirrubina total, creatinina, urea, albúmina y glucosa. Esto fue realizado en T0 (pre-anestesia; TBASAL), 48 y 96 horas después de la cirugía (T48, T96). Los resultados indican que en la evaluación clínica del dolor de todos los grupos de estudio, hubo una reducción gradual en la percepción del mismo durante el postoperatorio en ambos sistemas de puntuación; no obstante, también fue observado que ninguna escala difirió significativamente entre los tres grupos de tratamiento (P>0.05) en cada momento de evaluación durante las 48 horas post-cirugía. En cuanto a los parámetros bioquímico séricos, sólo la ALT aumentó significativamente en T96 en el GACET y GCARP con respecto a los valores basales (P<0.01). El resto de los analitos séricos evaluados se mantuvo en rangos normales. En el experimento 2 bajo el mismo diseño experimental de tratamientos administrados, el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto analgésico perioperatorio del acetaminofén 2 administrado pre y post-quirúrgicamente en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva a través de la medición del índice de la actividad del tono parasimpático (PTA). Este parámetro hemodinámico fue medido 60 minutos antes de la cirugía (TBASAL) y durante el transquirúrgico en la aplicación de estímulos nociceptivos: colocación de las pinzas de campo backhouse (TPINZ), incisión de piel y abordaje quirúrgico primario (TINC), ligadura y extracción de pedículo ovárico izquierdo (TOVI) y derecho (TOVD), ligadura y transfixión del cuello uterino (TLIGUT), sección quirúrgica del cuello uterino (TCUT), reconstrucción de peritoneo y planos anatómicos musculares (TMUSC) y sutura de piel (TSUT). Durante el postoperatorio, el índice PTA fue valorado a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36 y 48 horas, en los mismos tiempos en que fueron evaluadas las escalas de reconocimiento de dolor DIVAS y UMPS. Los resultados obtenidos en la medición del índice PTA basal para GACET fue 65 ± 8, para GCARP 65 ± 7 y para GMELOX 62 ± 5. Durante los diferentes tiempos transquirúrgicos, los valores promedio de índice PTA indican que GACET (76 ± 14) y GMELOX (72 ± 18) muestran tendencia a manifestar mayores niveles en comparación con GCARP (62 ± 13) desde el inicio del procedimiento quirúrgico sin que esto pudiera comprobarse estadísticamente, ya que no hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos de tratamiento ni entre los tiempos quirúrgicos evaluados (P>0.05). En el postoperatorio, el índice PTA fue de 65 ± 9 en el GACET, 63 ± 8 en el GCARP y 65 ± 8 en el GMELOX. Los resultados tampoco mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con los valores basales o entre los tratamientos (P>0.05). El índice PTA postoperatorio mostró una sensibilidad del 40%, especificidad del 98.46% y valor predictivo negativo del 99.07% con respecto a la escala validada de UMPS. En conclusión, el acetaminofén puede considerarse una herramienta para el tratamiento efectivo del dolor perioperatorio agudo en perros, ya que mostró la misma eficacia clínica que el meloxicam y el carprofeno para la analgesia postquirúrgica en perras sometidas a ovariohisterectomía electiva. Además, la evidencia del uso de este medicamento no condujo a reacciones adversas o cambios en los parámetros evaluados, lo que indica su seguridad clínica. Finalmente, destacar que el índice PTA representa una medición objetiva del comfort y analgesia postoperatoria, por lo que es una herramienta que podría ayudar a predecir las respuestas hemodinámicas asociadas con el dolor

    Responsible E-Waste Value Chains in Africa

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    Population growth, increasing prosperity and changing consumer habits globally are increasing demand for consumer electronics. Further to this, rapid changes in technology, falling prices, increased affordability and consumer appetite for new products have exacerbated e-waste management challenges and seen millions of tons of electronic devices become obsolete. This rapid literature review collates evidence from academic, policy focussed and grey literature on e-waste value chains. The report should be read I conjunction with an earlier report on e-waste management. E-waste is any electrical or electronic equipment, including all components, subassemblies and consumables, which are part of the equipment at the time the equipment becomes waste. When e-waste is collected and treated formally, it normally includes the following steps: Collection, Sorting and disassembly, Size reduction, Separation. The following five pillars of a sustainable e-waste management system have been identified: • Business and finance • Policy and regulation • Technology and skills • Monitoring and control • Marketing and awareness As such, to support the development of a responsible e-waste value chain, the following elements must be addressed. • Understanding how e-waste is currently managed • There is no one-size-fits all solution to building a robust e-waste management system based on extended producer responsibility. • An e-waste system built without a participatory approach is likely to be hampered by a series of issues. • An overarching policy is necessary • The choices made for the sector should be founded on two crucial elements – data from on the ground, and inputs from stakeholders. • Enforcement is incumbent on the government mandate The push towards a circular economy has provided stakeholders across the value chain with an impetus to initiate systemic improvements and invest in infrastructure and awareness raising.FCDO (Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances
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