11,900 research outputs found

    Local Activism in Urban Neighborhood Governance

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    This study investigates local activism in politically challenging contexts, focusing on Cairo. In such contexts, active resident groups strive for urban improvement, while governance arrangements often disregard citizen involvement in urban and public affairs. Cairo presents an exemplary case of local activism in a politically challenging and under-researched context. The study explores the characteristics, roles, and interrelations of active resident groups with local governance arrangements and their deviations from existing literature. It employs a qualitative methodology with observations and semi-structured interviews with local officials and active residents from nine different districts. The study uses Facebook to select, observe, and analyze the activities of multiple active resident groups and contributes to theoretical frameworks for analyzing local activism in complex contexts. It reveals the dominant and absent roles and the governance dimensions (un)attainable by active residents. It also traces the sources of limited local activism in the existing governance arrangements in Cairo, highlighting the importance and difficulty of changing governance arrangements in Egypt. The study broadens our understanding of local activism in the Global South beyond dominant forms of activism.

    Child exploitation in Cape Town : an exploratory-criminological investigation

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    Abstract in English, Afrikaans and XhosaHuman trafficking, which incorporates child exploitation, as interrogated and presented in this thesis, accentuates the significant contribution of criminology to comprehending the illegal manipulation, exploitation, and trafficking of persons, and specifically children. It expands and enhances the theoretical constructs and recommends justice through decisive, dedicated, and holistic intervention programmes and relevant strategies to defend the inherent rights of all citizens. This study serves as an instrument to profile human traffickers and their victims as well as their target selection and recruitment approaches. The research concerns South African child exploitation in the context of human trafficking and employs specific criminological theories to promote effectiveness and discovery. These theories are uncovered, scrutinised, and examined in this research to ascertain the correlation and alignment (or lack thereof) with the human trafficking phenomenon. This study contributes to the field of human trafficking in post-modern criminology. The data obtained from the participants during the interviewing phase, together with information from the literature review, confirms evidence of human trafficking incidents occurring in Cape Town with a strong undercurrent of child exploitation practices. The overall conclusion is that certain forms of child exploitation are visible, namely forced labour practices that include domestic servitude, and children engaged in street hawking and sexual exploitation. Furthermore, Cape Town is perceived as a sex tourism hotspot and the involvement of local gangs and taxi operators in the sex industry is obvious. The sexual exploitation of minors by parents on the Cape Flats, in particular, is an issue fuelled by poverty, unemployment, and alcohol and substance abuse that affect numerous households in impoverished areas. Since Cape Town is a major seaport city with a constant movement of foreign vessels, there is evidence of foreign fishing boats that employ forced labour practices. Abandoned seamen in need of care are often discovered on foreign vessels in Cape Town harbour, which is a transgression that requires more attention. This study shows that the basic principles of human trafficking, namely the recruitment, movement, and control of victims, apply and are manifest in numerous incidents in South Africa. The general view of all participants is that the South African government has made significant progress with the establishment of the Prevention and Combatting of Trafficking in Persons (PACOTIP) Act (2013) and there is an expectation amongst participants that the act will serve as a benchmark to assess trafficking going forward. Considering the hidden nature of trafficking and the scarcity of South African research on the subject, the overall findings of this study are significant. This probe into trafficking contributes to the discipline of Criminology as indicated in this study.Mensehandel, wat die uitbuiting van kinders insluit, soos ondersoek en aangebied word in hierdie proefskrif, beklemtoon die beduidende bydrae van kriminologie tot die begrip van die onwettige manipulasie, uitbuiting en handel in persone en spesifiek kinders. Dit brei die teoretiese konstruksies uit en versterk dit en beveel geregtigheid aan deur besliste, toegewyde en holistiese intervensieprogramme en relevante strategie√ę om die inherente regte van alle burgers te verdedig. Hierdie studie dien ook as 'n instrument om mensehandelaars en hul slagoffers te profileer, wat ook hul teikenkeuse en werwingsbenaderings uitlig. Die navorsing handel oor Suid-Afrikaanse kinderuitbuiting binne die konteks van mensehandel en wend spesifieke kriminologiese teorie√ę aan om doeltreffendheid en ontdekking van die misdaad te bewerkstellig. Hierdie teorie√ę word in hierdie navorsing ontbloot en ondersoek om die korrelasie en aansluiting (of gebrek daaraan) aan die mensehandelverskynsel vas te stel. Die verwagting is dat hierdie studie 'n beduidende bydrae sal lewer tot die veld van mensehandel in die post-moderne kriminologie. Die gegewens wat tydens die onderhoudfase van die deelnemers verkry is, sowel as inligting wat voortspruit uit die literatuur, bevestig dat daar getuienis is van mensehandel-voorvalle wat in Kaapstad plaasvind met 'n sterk onderstroom van kinderuitbuitingspraktyke. Die algehele gevolgtrekking is dat verskillende vorme van uitbuiting van kinders sigbaar is, wat dwangarbeid en huishoudelike dienste insluit, kinders wat besig is met straatsmousery asook die seksuele uitbuiting van kinders. Verder word Kaapstad as 'n brandpunt vir sekstoerisme beskou en die betrokkenheid van plaaslike bendes en taxi-operateurs in die seksbedryf is voor die hand liggend. Veral die seksuele uitbuiting van minderjariges deur ouers op die Kaapse Vlakte is 'n kwessie wat aangevuur word deur armoede, werkloosheid en drank- en dwelmmisbruik wat talle huishoudings in arm gebiede raak. Aangesien Kaapstad 'n belangrike hawestad is met 'n voortdurende beweging van buitelandse seevaartuie, is daar bevestiging van buitelandse vissersbote wat van dwangarbeid gebruik maak. Verlate seevaarders wat sorg benodig word gereeld op buitelandse bote in die Kaapstadse hawe ontdek en is 'n oortreding wat meer aandag verg. Hierdie studie toon dat die basiese beginsels van mensehandel, naamlik die werwing, beweging en beheer van slagoffers, van toepassing is en manifesteer in talle voorvalle in Suid-Afrika. Die algemene siening van alle deelnemers in hierdie ondersoek is dat die Suid-Afrikaanse regering beduidende vordering gemaak het met die instelling van die Wet op die Voorkoming en Bestryding van Mensehandel (2013) en dat daar onder die deelnemers 'n verwagting is dat die wet 'n maatstaf sal wees om mensehandel te beoordeel in die toekoms. Met inagneming van die verborge aard van handel en die gebrek aan Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing oor hierdie onderwerp, is die algehele bevindings van hierdie studie betekenisvol. Hierdie ondersoek na mensehandel dra by tot die dissipline van kriminologie soos in die studie aangedui word.Ukurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni, okubandakanya ukuxhaphaza abantwana, njengoko kugocagocwayo kwaye kwenziwa kule thisisi, kugxininisa igalelo elibalulekileyo lolwaphulo-mthetho ekuqondeni ukuxhaphaza ngokungekho mthethweni, ukuxhaphaza, ukurhweba ngabantu, ngakumbi abantwana. Iyakwandisa kwaye iphucule ukwakhiwa kweethiyori kwaye icebisa ubulungisa ngokusebenzisa iinkqubo zokungenelela ezigqibeleleyo, ezinikeleyo, nezibandakanya konke kunye nezicwangciso ezifanelekileyo zokukhusela amalungelo abo bonke abemi. Olu phononongo lukwasebenza njengesixhobo sokubonisa ukurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni kunye namaxhoba abo kunye neendlela zabo zokukhetha kunye neendlela zokugaya abantu. Olu phando luchaphazela izenzo zokuxhaphaza abantwana zoMzantsi Afrika kwimeko yokurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni kwaye lisebenzisa iithiyori ezithile zolwaphulo-mthetho ukukhuthaza ukusebenza ngokukuko kunye nokufumanisa. Ezi ithiyori ziyavezwa, ziphicothwe, kwaye zavavanywa kolu phando ukuqinisekisa ulungelelwaniso kunye nokulungelelaniswa (okanye ukusilela kwako) kunye nomcimbi wokurhweba ngabantu. Kulindelwe ukuba olu phononongo luza kuba negalelo kwicandelo lokurhweba ngabantu ngolwaphulo-mthetho lwasemva kwexesha langoku. Idatha efunyenwe kubathathi-nxaxheba ngexesha lesigaba sodliwanondlebe, kunye nolwazi oluvela kuncwadi, iyangqina ukuba bukhona ubungqina bezehlo zokurhweba ngabantu ezenzeka eKapa ezinesimo esomeleleyo sokuxhaphaza abantwana. Isiphetho esipheleleyo kukuba iindlela ezithile zokuxhaphaza abantwana ziyabonakala, nezinyanzelisa imisebenzi yabasebenzi ebandakanya ukukhonzwa emakhayeni, kunye nabantwana ababandakanyeka ekuthengiseni ezitalatweni nasekuxhaphazeni ngokwesondo. Ngapha koko, iKapa lithathwa njengeyona ndawo yokhenketho lokwabelana ngesondo kwaye ukubandakanyeka kwamaqela emigulukudu nabaqhubi beeteksi kuyacaca. Ukuxhatshazwa kwabantwana ngokwesondo ngabazali kwiCape Flats, ngakumbi, ngumba ophenjelelwa yindlala, ukungabikho kwemisebenzi, kunye nokusetyenziswa gwenxa kotywala neziyobisi ezichaphazela amakhaya amaninzi kwiindawo ezihlwempuzekileyo. Kuba iKapa sisixeko esisesona zibuko likhulu sihamba rhoqo kwiinqanawa zakwamanye amazwe, kukho ubungqina bokuba amaphenyane okuloba aphesheya aqeshe abantu ukuba basebenze ngenkani. Oomatiloshe abalahliweyo abafuna ukhathalelo bahlala befunyanwa kwiinqanawa zamanye amazwe kwizibuko laseKapa, ulwaphulo mthetho olufuna ingqalelo engakumbi. Olu phononongo lubonisa ukuba imigaqo-siseko yokurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni, eyile yokugaya, ukuhamba, nokulawula amaxhoba, iyasebenza kwaye iyabonakala kwiziganeko ezininzi eMzantsi Afrika. Uluvo ngokubanzi lwabo bonke abathathi-nxaxheba kukuba urhulumente woMzantsi Afrika wenze inkqubela phambili ebonakalayo ngokusekwa koMthetho woThintelo nokuLwa ukurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni (2013) kwaye kukho ulindelo phakathi kwabathathi-nxaxheba lokuba lo mthetho uzakusebenza njengomlinganiso wokuvavanya ukurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni. ukuya phambili. Ukuthathela ingqalelo imeko efihliweyo yokurhweba ngabantu ngokungekho mthethweni kunye nokunqaba kophando lwase Mzantsi Afrika ngalo mbandela, iziphumo zophando zizonke zibalulekile. Le projekthi yokurhweba ngabantu ngokurhabaxa inegalelo kuqeqesho lweCriminology njengoko kubonisiwe kolu phando.Criminology and Security ScienceD. Lit. et Phil. (Criminology

    Urban redevelopment, spatial restructuring, and displacement of communities in Bangkok

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    Bangkok and the Bangkok Mega Region (BMR) have experienced rapid and compressed development, resulting in complex stratified features. In this study, the characteristics of the spatial restructuring of Bangkok, its driving force, and consequences for the urban lower class are analysed. Macro statistics and raw data for community profiles over two time periods were used, indicating various types of gentrification which might occur in the city. Recently, urban redevelopment projects have been activated, resulting in fierce competition over space. These changes should be understood in terms of the interacting dynamics related to changes in the position and role of Bangkok in a highly interconnected Asian economy, real estate turn in economic development, and the socioeconomic condition of the city. Urban development, aimed at Bangkok becoming a ‚Äėglobal city‚Äô that will attract global investors and the affluent class, is now intensifying, placing pressure on the informal economy and settlements which are likely to be displaced, as well as creating hindrances to the survival of the urban lower class

    Covid-19 and Capitalism

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    This open access book provides a comprehensive analysis of the socioeconomic determinants of Covid-19. From the end of 2019 until presently, the world has been ravaged by the Covid-19 pandemic. Although the cause of this is (obviously) a virus, the extent to which this virus spread, and therefore the number of infections and deaths, was largely determined by socio-economic factors. From this, it follows that the course of the pandemic varies greatly from one country to another. This observation applies both to countries’ resilience to such a pandemic (which is mainly rooted in the period preceding the outbreak of the virus) and to the way in which countries have reacted to the virus (including the political choices on how to respond). Meanwhile, research has made it clear that the nature of this response (e.g., elimination policy, mitigation policy, and proceeding herd immunity) was, on the one hand, strongly determined by political and ideological factors and, on the other hand, was highly influential in the factors of success or failure in combating the pandemic. The book focuses on the situation in a number of Western regions (notably the USA, the UK, and the EU and its Member States). The author addresses the reasons why in many Western countries both pandemic prevention and response policies to Covid-19 have failed. The book concludes with recommendations concerning the rearrangement of the socio-economic order that could increase the resilience of (Western) societies against such pandemics

    Resource Recovery from Water

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    Throughout history, the first and foremost role of urban water management has been the protection of human health and the local aquatic environment. To this end, the practice of (waste-)water treatment has maintained a central focus on the removal of pollutants through dissipative pathways. Approaches like ‚Äď in the case of wastewater treatment ‚Äď the activated sludge process, which makes ‚Äėhazardous things‚Äô disappear, have benefitted our society tremendously by safeguarding human and environmental health. While conventional (waste-)water treatment is regarded as one of the greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century, these dissipative approaches will not suffice in the 21st century as we enter the era of the circular economy. A key challenge for the future of urban water management is the need to re-envision the role of water infrastructure, still holding paramount the safeguard of human and environmental health while also becoming a more proactive force for sustainable development through the recovery of resources embedded in urban water. This book aims (i) to explain the basic principles governing resource recovery from water (how much is there, really); (ii) to provide a comprehensive overview and critical assessment of the established and emerging technologies for resource recovery from water; and (iii) to put resource recovery from water in a legal, economic (including the economy of scale of recovered products), social (consumer's point of view), and environmental sustainability framework. This book serves as a powerful teaching tool at the graduate entry master level with an aim to help develop the next generation of engineers and experts and is also highly relevant for seasoned water professionals and practicing engineers

    Green Economy and Sustainable Development

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    Considering the importance of the challenges for sustainable development, this Book is intended to disseminate the results of cutting-edge research and broadcast the opinions of scientists from around the world, providing technological breakthroughs in green energy and urbanism, recycling and modernization of basic industries, conducting fundamental research on the economic problems of the transition to sustainable development

    A Precariat Charter

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    This book is available as open access through the Bloomsbury Open Access programme and is available on www.bloomsburycollections.com. Guy Standing's immensely influential 2011 book introduced the Precariat as an emerging mass class, characterized by inequality and insecurity. Standing outlined the increasingly global nature of the Precariat as a social phenomenon, especially in the light of the social unrest characterized by the Occupy movements. He outlined the political risks they might pose, and at what might be done to diminish inequality and allow such workers to find a more stable labour identity. His concept and his conclusions have been widely taken up by thinkers from Noam Chomsky to Zygmunt Bauman, by political activists and by policy-makers. This new book takes the debate a stage further, looking in more detail at the kind of progressive politics that might form the vision of a Good Society in which such inequality, and the instability it produces, is reduced. A Precariat Charter discusses how rights - political, civil, social and economic - have been denied to the Precariat, and argues for the importance of redefining our social contract around notions of associational freedom, agency and the commons

    Three essays on empirical microeconomics

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    This thesis studies the effects of local environments on perceptions. The last chapter examines older workers' responses to unemployment benefits cuts. In the first essay, I study the effects of neighborhoods on perceived inequality and preferences for redistribution in the context of Barcelona. I first construct a novel measure of inequality based on the geospatial distribution of housing. I then elicit inequality perceptions and preferences for redistribution from an original large-scale survey. I link these measures to respondents' specific local environments using exact addresses. I identify the causal effects of neighborhoods using two different approaches. The first is an outside-the-survey quasi-experiment that exploits within-neighborhood variation in respondents' recent exposure to new apartment buildings. The second is a within-survey experiment inducing variation in respondents' information set about inequality across neighborhoods. Local environments significantly influence inequality perceptions but only mildly affect demand for redistribution. In the second essay, I study the effects of neighborhoods on perceived immigration and preferences for redistribution. I construct flexible definitions of local neighborhoods by aggregating census tracts and measure immigration at this fine geographic level. I elicit immigration perceptions and preferences for redistribution from my original survey. Most respondents significantly overestimate the number of immigrants in the country, but those residing in neighborhoods with more immigrants are more likely to do so. Misperceptions negatively correlate with demand for redistribution and are partly explained by the local immigrant composition. They are exacerbated when more African or Asian immigrants reside in the local area. In the third essay, I causally estimate the effects of pro-cyclical unemployment-assistance (UA) reductions on job search behavior and re-employment outcomes using reform-induced changes in UA durations for older workers in Spain. Benefit reductions are effective in bringing workers back to work and reduce non-employment duration, but also induce displacements out of the labor force and strong substitution patterns towards less generous UA programs, highlighting the social insurance role of long-term benefits during economic downturns. Despite the sharp drop in non-employment duration, I also document a significant decrease in re-employment wages, consistent with a reduction in workers' reservation wages and limited duration dependence

    Free-Market Socialists

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    The Hungarian artist-designer L√°szl√≥ Moholy-Nagy, the Austrian sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld, and his fellow Viennese Victor Gruen‚ÄĒan architect and urban planner‚ÄĒmade careers in different fields. Yet they shared common socialist politics, Jewish backgrounds, and experience as refugees from the Nazis. This book tells the story of their intellectual migration from Central Europe to the United States, beginning with the collapse of the Habsburg Empire, and moving through the heady years of newly independent social-democratic republics before the descent into fascism. It follows their experience of exile and adaptation in a new country, and culminates with a surprising outcome of socialist thinking: the opening of the first fully enclosed, air-conditioned suburban shopping center in the United States. Although the American culture they encountered ostensibly celebrated entrepreneurial individualism and capitalistic ‚Äúfree enterprise,‚ÄĚ Moholy-Nagy, Lazarsfeld, and Gruen arrived at a time of the progressive economic reforms of the New Deal and an extraordinary open-mindedness about social democracy. This period of unprecedented economic experimentation nurtured a business climate that, for the most part, did not stifle the √©migr√©s‚Äô socialist idealism but rather channeled it as the source of creative solutions to the practical problems of industrial design, urban planning, and consumer behavior. Based on a vast array of original sources, Malherek interweaves the biographies of these three remarkable personalities and those of their wives, colleagues, and friends with whom they collaborated on innovative projects that would shape the material environment and consumer culture of their adopted home. The result is a narrative of immigration and adaptation that challenges the crude binary of capitalism and socialism with a story of creative economic hybridization

    Public Wife: The Life of Jessie Benton Fremont

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    This dissertation focuses on the life of Jessie Benton Fr√©mont (1824-1902) and the ways in which she performed the role of a ‚Äúpublic wife‚ÄĚ through her marriage to John C. Fr√©mont. This re-examination of a woman immensely popular in the nineteenth century offers a new way of thinking about the wives of famous men and the steps they took to both participate in, and direct the narrative of, American history. Jessie Benton was the daughter of Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton. At sixteen, Jessie met a young man from the Army Corps of Topographical Engineers who came to meet with her father regarding explorations in the trans-Mississippi west. Jessie, at age seventeen, eloped with the man, John C. Fr√©mont (1813-1890), who would come to play a significant role in the western expansion endorsed by her father. John Fr√©mont‚Äôs expeditions across the west in the 1840s and his role in the ‚Äúconquest of California‚ÄĚ in 1846 earned him national recognition. Jessie popularized John‚Äôs accomplishments through her work on his expedition reports, securing the fame which led him to the office of U.S. senator and a presidential nomination in 1856. As she created John‚Äôs fame, Jessie used the opportunity to create a reputation of her own, that of the spirited mate to a dashing man, and thus became an integral component in her husband‚Äôs public career. Without Jessie‚Äôs lionizing of her husband and her efforts to shape a positive public image of both Fr√©monts, John C. Fr√©mont would not, could not, have been as widely recognized and admired as he was during the nineteenth century. As an essential component of her role as a ‚Äúpublic wife,‚ÄĚ it was Jessie, not John, who shaped his experiences into the heroic narrative that lingers today. Jessie‚Äôs idealization of her wifely duties let her develop her own narrative of the Fr√©monts‚Äô history so that her version of the tale secured John‚Äôs reputation and the couple‚Äôs social standing while overwhelming any voices raised in opposition. Well into the twentieth century, Jessie‚Äôs account of her husband and his exploits continued the heroic narrative into textbooks and memorials
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