38,158 research outputs found

    Pregnancy and cardiac disease

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    Abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment outcomes in the Netherlands

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    In this thesis, the nationwide trends in abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment outcomes and outcomes of subgroups such as octogenarians following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair are investigated using data from the Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit (DSAA). Moreover, the nationwide outcomes of complex EVAR are described, including a volume-outcome association, and new opportunities for feedback and outcome measurement are discussed

    Image2_Differences in left ventricular myocardial function and infarct size in female patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction and spontaneous coronary artery dissection.jpeg

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    IntroductionDifferences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and natural course of ST-elevation myocardial infarction in female patients due to either spontaneous dissection (SCAD-STEMI) or atherothrombotic occlusion (type 1 STEMI) have been discussed. Current knowledge on differences in left ventricular myocardial function and infarct size is limited. The aim of this study was to assess baseline clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and therapeutic approach and to compare differences in echocardiographic findings at baseline and 3-month follow-up in patients with SCAD-STEMI and type 1 STEMI.MethodsThis was a prospective multicenter study of 32 female patients (18–55 years of age) presenting with either SCAD-STEMI due to left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) dissection or type 1 STEMI due to atherothrombotic LAD occlusion.ResultsThe two groups were similar in age, risk factors, comorbidities, and complications. SCAD-STEMI patients more often had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 3 flow, while type 1 STEMI patients were more often treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and dual antiplatelet therapy. Baseline mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in the two groups (48.0% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.881), but there was a significant difference at the 3-month follow-up, driven by an improvement in LVEF in SCAD-STEMI compared to type 1 STEMI patients (Δ LVEF 10.1 ± 5.3% vs. 1.8 ± 5.1%, p = 0.002). LV global longitudinal strain was slightly improved in both groups at follow-up; however, the improvement was not significantly different between groups (−4.6 ± 2.9% vs. −2.0 ± 2.8%, p = 0.055).ConclusionsThe results suggest that female patients with SCAD-STEMI are more likely to experience improvement in LV systolic function than type 1 STEMI patients.</p

    Pharmacist-led intervention for older people with atrial fibrillation in long-term care (PIVOTALL study): a randomised pilot and feasibility study.

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    BackgroundOlder care home residents are a vulnerable group of people with atrial fibrillation (AF) at high risk of adverse health events. The Atrial Fibrillation Better Care (ABC: Avoid stroke; Better symptom management; Cardiovascular and other comorbidity management) pathway is the gold-standard approach toward integrated AF care, and pharmacists are a potential resource with regards to its' implementation. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of pharmacist-led medicines optimisation in care home residents, based on the ABC pathway compared to usual care.MethodsIndividually randomised, prospective pilot and feasibility study of older (aged ≥ 65 years) care home residents with AF (ISRCTN14747952); residents randomised to ABC pathway optimised care versus usual care. The primary outcome was a description of study feasibility (resident and care home recruitment and retention). Secondary outcomes included the number and type of pharmacist medication recommendations and general practitioner (GP) implementation.ResultsTwenty-one residents were recruited and 11 (mean age [standard deviation] 85.0 [6.5] years, 63.6% female) were randomised to receive pharmacist-led medicines optimisation. Only 3/11 residents were adherent to all three components of the ABC pathway. Adherence was higher to 'A' (9/11 residents) and 'B' (9/11 residents) components compared to 'C' (3/11 residents). Four ABC-specific medicines recommendations were made for three residents, and two were implemented by residents' GPs. Overall ABC adherence rates did not change after pharmacist medication review, but adherence to 'A' increased (from 9/11 to 10/11 residents). Other ABC recommendations were inappropriate given residents' co-morbidities and risk of medication-related adverse effects.ConclusionsThe ABC pathway as a framework was feasible to implement for pharmacist medication review, but most residents' medications were already optimised. Low rates of adherence to guideline-recommended therapy were a result of active decisions not to treat after assessment of the net risk-benefit

    Clopidogrel, ticagrelor, prasugrel or an alternation of two P2Y12 in patients with acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock

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    BackgroundData are lacking on the effects of the alternation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (P2Y12) on bleeding and outcome in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) with cardiogenic shock (CS). We compared the effects of different P2Y12 and alternation of P2Y12 (combination) on bleeding and outcome in patients with MI and CS.MethodsData from 247 patients divided into four groups: clopidogrel, ticagrelor, prasugrel, and the combination group, were analyzed. The association between P2Y12 and bleeding as well as 30-day and one-year mortality was examined.ResultsThe highest bleeding rate was observed in patients in the combination group, followed by the clopidogrel, ticagrelor, and prasugrel groups [12(50%) patients, 22(28.2%), 21(18.3%) and 4(13.3%), respectively; p = 0.003]. Bleeding occurred with a similar frequency in the combination and clopidogrel groups (p = 0.081), but more frequently than in the ticagrelor and prasugrel groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, respectively). Bleeding rates were similar in patients receiving P2Y12 alone (p = 0.13). Compared to clopidogrel, both ticagrelor and prasugrel had a lower bleeding risk (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18–0.92; p = 0.032 and aOR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05–0.85; p = 0.029, respectively) and the combination had a similar bleeding risk (aOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 0.71–7.48; p = 0.16). The ticagrelor and prasugrel groups had more than an 80% and 90% lower bleeding risk than the combination group (aOR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.06–0.55; p = 0.003 and aOR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02–0.44; p = 0.003, respectively). The unadjusted 30-day and one-year mortality were highest in the clopidogrel group, followed by the ticagrelor, prasugrel, and combination groups (44(56.4%) and 55(70.5%) patients died in the clopidogrel group, 53(46.1%) and 56(48.7%) in the ticagrelor group, 12(40%) and 14(46.7%) patients died in the prasugrel, and 6(25%) and 9(37.5%) patients died in the combination group; p = 0.045 and p &lt; 0.0001. After adjustment for confounders, the P2Y12 groups were not independently associated with either 30-day (p = 0.23) or one-year (p = 0.17) mortality risk.ConclusionOur results suggest that the choice of P2Y12 was not associated with treatment outcome. The combination of P2Y12 increased bleeding risk compared with ticagrelor and prasugrel and was comparable to clopidogrel in patients with MI and CS. However, these higher bleeding rates did not result in worse treatment outcomes

    Anti-platelet aggregation activities of different grades of Angelica sinensis and their therapeutic mechanisms in rats with blood deficiency: insights from metabolomics and lipidomics analyses

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    In traditional Chinese medicine, the radix of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (RAS) is mainly used to replenish and invigorate the blood circulation. This study investigated anti-platelet aggregation activities were used by New Zealand rabbits, and high-performance liquid chromatography data were obtained to determine the spectrum–effect relationship for different commercial grades of RAS. Plasma and urine metabolites were examined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of these metabolites in a rat model of blood deficiency (BD). Plasma and spleen metabolites were additionally examined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography plus Q-Exactive tandem mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to clarify the mechanisms of RAS in treating BD. The third grade of RAS exhibited the best activity in replenishing and invigorating blood in vitro and in vivo. Ferulic acid, ligustilide, senkyunolide I, uridine, and guanine are quality markers of anti-platelet aggregation activity. Based on the metabolomics results, 19 potential biomarkers were screened in plasma, and 12 potential metabolites were detected in urine. In lipidomics analyses, 73 potential biomarkers were screened in plasma, and 112 potential biomarkers were screened in the spleen. RAS may restore lipid metabolism by regulating disorders of glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acid metabolism (thereby improving energy metabolism), and arachidonic acid metabolism (thereby promoting blood circulation). These results provide a deeper understanding of the effects of different grades of RAS and a scientific reference for the establishment of grading standards and for the clinical use of RAS

    Biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke

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    Troponin in acute chest pain to risk stratify and guide effective use of computed tomography coronary angiography (TARGET-CTCA): a randomised controlled trial

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    Background The majority of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome presenting to the emergency department will be discharged once myocardial infarction has been ruled out, although a proportion will have unrecognised coronary artery disease. In this setting, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin identifies those at increased risk of future cardiac events. In patients with intermediate cardiac troponin concentrations in whom myocardial infarction has been ruled out, this trial aims to investigate whether outpatient computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) reduces subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Methods TARGET-CTCA is a multicentre prospective randomised open label with blinded endpoint parallel group event driven trial. After myocardial infarction and clear alternative diagnoses have been ruled out, participants with intermediate cardiac troponin concentrations (5 ng/L to 99th centile upper reference limit) will be randomised 1:1 to outpatient CTCA plus standard of care or standard of care alone. The primary endpoint is myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Secondary endpoints include clinical, patient-centred, process and cost-effectiveness. Recruitment of 2270 patients will give 90% power with a two-sided P value of 0.05 to detect a 40% relative risk reduction in the primary endpoint. Follow-up will continue until 97 primary outcome events have been accrued in the standard care arm with an estimated median follow-up of 36 months. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will determine whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-guided CTCA can improve outcomes and reduce subsequent major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting to the emergency department who do not have myocardial infarction

    Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med

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    PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for the anaesthetic and peri-operative management for thrombectomy procedure in stroke patients DESIGN: A consensus committee of 15 experts issued from the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Société Française d'Anesthésie et Réanimation, SFAR), the Association of French-language Neuro-Anaesthetists (Association des Neuro-Anesthésistes Réanimateurs de Langue Francaise, ANARLF), the French Neuro-Vascular Society (Société Francaise de Neuro-Vasculaire, SFNV), the French Neuro-Radiology Society (Société Francaise de Neuro-Radiologie, SFNR) and the French Study Group on Haemostasis and Thrombosis (Groupe Français d'Études sur l'Hémostase et la Thrombose, GFHT) was convened, under the supervision of two expert coordinators from the SFAR and the ANARLF. A formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed at the outset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guideline elaboration process was conducted independently of any industry funding. The authors were required to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide their assessment of quality of evidence. METHODS: Four fields were defined prior to the literature search: (1) Peri-procedural management, (2) Prevention and management of secondary brain injuries, (3) Management of antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments, (4) Post-procedural management and orientation of the patient. Questions were formulated using the PICO format (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes) and updated as needed. Analysis of the literature was then conducted and the recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The SFAR/ANARLF/SFNV/SFNR/GFHT guideline panel drew up 18 recommendations regarding anaesthetic management of mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Due to a lack of data in the literature allowing to conclude with high certainty on relevant clinical outcomes, the experts decided to formulate these guidelines as "Professional Practice Recommendations" (PPR) rather than "Formalized Expert Recommendations". After two rounds of rating and several amendments, a strong agreement was reached on 100% of the recommendations. No recommendation could be formulated for two questions. CONCLUSIONS: Strong agreement among experts was reached to provide a sizable number of recommendations aimed at optimising anaesthetic management for thrombectomy in patients suffering from stroke

    Treatment effect modification due to comorbidity : Individual participant data meta-analyses of 120 randomised controlled trials

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    BACKGROUND: People with comorbidities are underrepresented in clinical trials. Empirical estimates of treatment effect modification by comorbidity are lacking, leading to uncertainty in treatment recommendations. We aimed to produce estimates of treatment effect modification by comorbidity using individual participant data (IPD). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained IPD for 120 industry-sponsored phase 3/4 trials across 22 index conditions (n = 128,331). Trials had to be registered between 1990 and 2017 and have recruited ≥300 people. Included trials were multicentre and international. For each index condition, we analysed the outcome most frequently reported in the included trials. We performed a two-stage IPD meta-analysis to estimate modification of treatment effect by comorbidity. First, for each trial, we modelled the interaction between comorbidity and treatment arm adjusted for age and sex. Second, for each treatment within each index condition, we meta-analysed the comorbidity-treatment interaction terms from each trial. We estimated the effect of comorbidity measured in 3 ways: (i) the number of comorbidities (in addition to the index condition); (ii) presence or absence of the 6 commonest comorbid diseases for each index condition; and (iii) using continuous markers of underlying conditions (e.g., estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)). Treatment effects were modelled on the usual scale for the type of outcome (absolute scale for numerical outcomes, relative scale for binary outcomes). Mean age in the trials ranged from 37.1 (allergic rhinitis trials) to 73.0 (dementia trials) and percentage of male participants range from 4.4% (osteoporosis trials) to 100% (benign prostatic hypertrophy trials). The percentage of participants with 3 or more comorbidities ranged from 2.3% (allergic rhinitis trials) to 57% (systemic lupus erythematosus trials). We found no evidence of modification of treatment efficacy by comorbidity, for any of the 3 measures of comorbidity. This was the case for 20 conditions for which the outcome variable was continuous (e.g., change in glycosylated haemoglobin in diabetes) and for 3 conditions in which the outcomes were discrete events (e.g., number of headaches in migraine). Although all were null, estimates of treatment effect modification were more precise in some cases (e.g., sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for type 2 diabetes-interaction term for comorbidity count 0.004, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.02) while for others credible intervals were wide (e.g., corticosteroids for asthma-interaction term -0.22, 95% CI -1.07 to 0.54). The main limitation is that these trials were not designed or powered to assess variation in treatment effect by comorbidity, and relatively few trial participants had >3 comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Assessments of treatment effect modification rarely consider comorbidity. Our findings demonstrate that for trials included in this analysis, there was no empirical evidence of treatment effect modification by comorbidity. The standard assumption used in evidence syntheses is that efficacy is constant across subgroups, although this is often criticised. Our findings suggest that for modest levels of comorbidities, this assumption is reasonable. Thus, trial efficacy findings can be combined with data on natural history and competing risks to assess the likely overall benefit of treatments in the context of comorbidity