89 research outputs found

    Apis mellifera Worker Bees Selected for Varroa-sensitive Hygiene Show Higher Specific Sensitivity and Perception Speed Towards Low Concentrations of Chemical Cues Emitted by the Brood

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    Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) is highly influenced by the worker bee’s olfactory ability. Workers bred for VSH and non-selected control line workers were tested for differences in their speed and perception ability when presented with highly diluted stimuli. Four different substances (citral – dilution 1:1300, linalool dilution 1:1300, Varroa-parasitized brood extract, isopropanol) were used as tactile stimuli for differential conditioning with the proboscis extension response (PER). Discrimination ability and generalization were assessed. In a second set of conditioning experiments differences in sensitivity to the highly diluted citral and the Varroa-parasitized brood extract as reinforced stimuli (Cs +) were explored between workers from both lines. The worker bees were classified into three groups (Time points) depending on how long before they started correctly extending their proboscis to the Cs + , and results were examined separately for each of the two stimuli and group. While the VSH-selected line exhibited a significantly higher perception ability for the parasitized brood extract than the non-selected line, the two lines showed no differences when conditioned with the floral stimulus citral as Cs + . Furthermore, the VSH-selected line displayed a significantly higher number of worker bees that perceived the complex bouquet of the Varroa-parasitized brood extract at the earliest time grouping (Time point 1). The odds of perception at the earliest possible time point were 2.6-times higher for the VSH-selected line. Although no comparison was made between healthy and parasitized brood, the results indicate an enhanced specific sensitivity in VSH-selected workers towards chemical cues emitted by the brood, which might play a role in the detection of Varroa destructor

    New Zealand pest and beneficial insects

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    Supersedes New Zealand insect pests, published 1976. "a text for agricultural and horticultural students"--Jacket flap.In the eight years since the publication of New Zealand Insect Pests much new information on many pest species has become available, several significant new pests have become established and new crops with their own pest complexes are being grown. Also, with the upsurge in interest in horticulture, some pests have acquired a new status. In response to an increased interest in biological control and integrated pest management the scope of this book has been widened to include the biological control of weeds and detailed coverage of the arthropod parasites and predators of pest species. As with its predecessor, this book has been written primarily as a text for agricultural and horticultural students but should be of interest to advisers, farmers, managers, orchardists, market gardeners and keen home gardeners

    LINKING PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES TO BEHAVIOR AND HEALTH IN THE HONEY BEE (\u3ci\u3eApis mellifera\u3c/i\u3e)

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    An organism’s ability to respond to changing conditions can be vital to its success. Indeed, plasticity is a common feature of living organisms. Much of the research in this area, though, has focused on effects caused by environmental conditions. What has received relatively less attention is how social experiences and broader features of an organism’s social environment can lead to long-lasting changes in health and behavior. This knowledge gap exists despite the well-documented existence of health and behavioral effects after social interactions in certain taxa such as humans. Social insects such as honey bees provide an excellent opportunity to better understand this phenomenon due to their well-characterized behavioral repertoire, complex social dynamics, and experimental tractability in natural and semi-natural settings. This project examines multiple aspects of honey bee behavior and health to determine how they are affected by a bee’s previous experiences. Additionally, this project aims to uncover how elements of the social environment (such as colony-level aggression) lead to different outcomes in adult behavior, physiology, and health in these insects. I first documented the existence of high colony-level variation in the nutritional profile of “worker jelly.” Worker jelly is a nutritional secretion that is synthesized by adult nurse bees and comprises the entirety of the nutritional resources available to a honey bee larva, making it a critical feature of the early-life development period for bees. Next, I examined the social interaction element of nurse bees inspecting and feeding larvae. I determined that this vital interaction can be affected by social pheromones such as the honey bee alarm pheromone. This effect was dependent on the colony-level aggressive social environment, however, despite these nurses not being specialized for aggressive nest defense. I then followed up on the previous results by using electrophysiology to determine that colony-level aggression differentially affects the peripheral detection of some social pheromones in nurses but not in bees of a typically more aggressive task specialization, foragers. Finally, I turned the lens to the adult social interaction of allogrooming. Allogrooming is a key component of a honey bee colony’s health-promoting “social immunity.” I tested how an acute allogrooming event affects the expression of key immune genes from multiple pathways as well as deeply conserved genes implicated in social responsiveness across taxa. This work demonstrates how early life experiences and social interactions can affect the health and behavior of a highly social organism. Additionally, given the recent challenges faced by these important pollinators, this research provides key foundational knowledge on the importance of social factors in maintaining the overall health and vitality of honey bees and honey bee colonies

    Honey Bee Health

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    Over the past decade, the worldwide decline in honey bee populations has been an important issue due to its implications for beekeeping and honey production. Honey bee pathologies are continuously studied by researchers, in order to investigate the host–parasite relationship and its effect on honey bee colonies. For these reasons, the interest of the veterinary community towards this issue has increased recently, and honey bee health has also become a subject of public interest. Bacteria, such as Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, microsporidia, such as Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, fungi, such as Ascosphaera apis, mites, such as Varroa destructor, predatory wasps, including Vespa velutina, and invasive beetles, such as Aethina tumida, are “old” and “new” subjects of important veterinary interest. Recently, the role of host–pathogen interactions in bee health has been included in a multifactorial approach to the study of these insects’ health, which involves a dynamic balance among a range of threats and resources interacting at multiple levels. The aim of this Special Issue is to explore honey bee health through a series of research articles that are focused on different aspects of honey bee health at different levels, including molecular health, microbial health, population genetic health, and the interaction between invasive species that live in strict contact with honey bee populations

    Age-performance and intensity of grooming behavior toward Varroa destructor in resistant and susceptible Apis mellifera colonies

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    Grooming behavior confers resistance to honey bees against Varroa destructor, being of interest to social immunity studies and breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize at the individual level the grooming behavior of mite-resistant (R) and susceptible (S) A. mellifera stocks from Argentina. Assays were performed in experimental arenas by applying two treatments to nurse bees: (1) placing a V. destructor mite on the bee’s thorax and (2) touching the bee with a paintbrush. Grooming reactions were recorded on bees from both stocks at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 days after emergence. R bees exhibited lower time of first response against the mite, performed more cleaning attempts, and used all their legs with a higher probability compared to S bees. The same pattern was evident when younger and older bees from the R stock were compared. The results demonstrate that bee age and genetic origin are critical factors of grooming behavior in honey bees.Fil: Russo, Romina Maria. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo | Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo; ArgentinaFil: Landi, Lucas. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación de Recursos Naturales. Instituto de Recursos Biológicos; ArgentinaFil: Muntaabski, Irina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo | Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo; ArgentinaFil: Liendo, María Clara. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo | Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo; ArgentinaFil: Pietronave, Hernán Pablo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Santa Fe. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Reconquista; ArgentinaFil: Merke, Julieta. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Santa Fe. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Rafaela; ArgentinaFil: Rodríguez, Graciela A.. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Buenos Aires Sur. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Hilario Ascasubi; ArgentinaFil: Palacio, María A.. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria; ArgentinaFil: Basilio, Alicia Mabel. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomia. Departamento de Producción Animal. Cátedra de Avicultura, Cunicultura y Apicultura; ArgentinaFil: Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo | Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo; ArgentinaFil: Scannapieco, Alejandra Carla. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo | Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular. Grupo Vinculado Instituto de Genética "Ewald A. Favret" al Iabimo; Argentin

    Using Proteomic Analysis to investigate the Effects of Aging, Seasonality, Treatments and Disease Presence Within Apis mellifera Colonies.

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    Apis mellifera colonies are a complex, highly organised society that are essential pollinators across the world for both wild flora and cultivated crops. A. mellifera colonies face a myriad of challenges that can be detrimental to their survival – the spread of diseases and pests, poor bee husbandry, loss of essential flora, exposure to commercial insecticides and migratory beekeeping. These daily challenges and exposures have caused a worrying depletion of A. mellifera colonies which is resulting in an increasing concern in the environmental and scientific community. Research is now focused on the relationship honeybee colonies have with the changing environment and the presence of diseases. Female worker honeybees make up the majority of bees within A. mellifera colonies and are essential for hive survival. Worker bees undergo changes to their anatomy and gland secretions as they age to optimise their productivity. Furthermore, worker bees can be divided based on seasons – summer and winter worker bees, both age and seasonality can affect the proteome and therefore the immune response of worker bees. Label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics was performed on worker bees at various stages of their lifecycle, between winter and summer, in response to exposure to anti-Varroa treatments and finally in response to the presence of Varroa destructor and Nosema spores within colonies. The work presented in this thesis has identified key age, seasonal, and virus-infected differences within hives at a proteomic level. These results show both age-dependent evolution and environmental adaptions experienced by a hive highlighting their complex relationship and vulnerability to external threats. Importantly, this work has highlighted the impact of anti-Varroa treatments and the potential side effects towards colonies. Finally, work conducted on the effects of Varroa mites and Nosema spores on bees highlighted the need to better understand how these pathogens interact when both are infecting colonies simultaneously. The results presented here provide a novel insight into the proteomic changes that occur in worker bees when exposed to different external factors. However, it also highlights the need for further research into how honeybee workers adapt to stresses such as insecticide exposure and dual infections by Varroa and Nosema

    Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 2022

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    Parallel evolution of Varroa resistance in honey bees; a common mechanism across continents?

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    The near-globally distributed ecto-parasitic mite of the Apis mellifera honey bee, Varroa destructor, has formed a lethal association with Deformed wing virus, a once rare and benign RNA virus. In concert the two have killed millions of wild and managed colonies, particularly across the northern hemisphere, forcing the need for regular acaricide application to ensure colony survival. However, despite the short association (in evolutionary terms), A. mellifera populations across the globe have been surviving many years without any mite control methods. This long-term survival, or Varroa resistance, is consistently associated with the same suite of traits, recapping, brood removal and reduced mite reproduction, irrespective of location. Here we conduct an analysis of data extracted from 60 papers to illustrate how these traits connect together to explain decades of mite resistance data. For the first time we have potentially a unified understanding of natural Varroa resistance that will help the global industry achieve widespread miticide free beekeeping and indicate how different honey bee populations across four continents have resolved a recent threat using the same suite of behaviours
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