36,967 research outputs found

    Influence of various redox conditions on the degradation of microalgal triacylglycerols and fatty acids in marine sediments

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    Sediment cakes, supplemented with microalgal cells (Nannochloropsis salina), were incubated for 35 days under permanently oxic, oscillating (5d:5d changeover oxic/anoxic) and strictly anoxic conditions of oxygenation in diffusively ‘‘open’’ sedimentary systems. Total lipids (TLip) and triacylglycerols (TG) concentrations were monitored by thin layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection, whereas the concentrations of the main extractable (free+ester-bound) individual fatty acids (C16:0, C16:1, C18:1) were followed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under the three conditions of oxygenation, TOC, TLip and TG showed a sharp decrease in concentration during the early days of incubation and seemed to stabilise thereafter, defining an apparent non degradable fraction (GNR). The GNR content was systematically higher in the anoxic incubation than under the oxic and oscillating conditions. The ratio of the main hydrolysis products of TG versus TG [(Free fatty acids+Monoacylglycerols+1,2-Diacylglycerols)/TG], used as an indicator of the hydrolysis of TG, showed that the presence of oxygen in the sediments (oxic and oscillating conditions) stimulates the hydrolysis of TG and the subsequent degradation of their metabolites. Unlike TOC, TLip and TG, individual fatty acids (FA) showed a continuous concentration decrease until the end of the experiment, which was fitted with a simple first order model [G(t)=G0e_kt] to yield apparent degradation rate constants. The values observed under oscillating conditions (kFA=0.019 +/- 0.001 d_1) were intermediate to those observed during oxic (kFA=0.029 +/- 0.003 d_1) and anoxic (kFA=0.011 +/- 0.001 d_1) incubations, and no significant difference between individual FA could be observed. The production of saturated and monounsaturated C16 (and to a lesser extent C18) alkanols under oscillating and anoxic redox conditions suggested that (a part of) the dominant FA were reduced to the corresponding alcohols under anoxic conditions, following their release from acylglycerols

    Stability and performance of two GSBR operated in alternating anoxic/aerobic or anaerobic/aerobic conditions for nutrient removal

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    Two granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) with alternating anoxic/aerobic (R1) and anaerobic/aerobic (R2) conditions were operated with a 4-carbon-source synthetic influent. The physical properties of the granular sludge were very good (SVI≈20 mL g−1) and high solid concentrations (up to 35 g L−1) were obtained in the bioreactor operated with a pre-anoxic phase with additional nitrate (R1). In contrast, performance and granule settleability were lower in R2 due to the development of filamentous heterotrophic bacteria on the surface of granules. These disturbances were linked to the fact that a fraction of COD remained during the aerobic phase, which was not stored during the anaerobic period. To stabilize a GSBR with a mixture of organic carbon sources, it is thus necessary to maximize the amount of substrate used during the non-aerated, anaerobic or anoxic, phase. Comparable phosphate removal efficiency was observed in both systems; enhanced biological P removal being greater in anaerobic/aerobic conditions, while the contribution of precipitation (Ca–P) was more significant in anoxic/aerobic conditions

    Resolving the contributions of the membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductase systems to nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

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    The production of cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) and conversion into the neuropharmacological agent and potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is linked with anoxic nitrate catabolism by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Salmonella can synthesize two types of nitrate reductase: a membrane-bound form (Nar) and a periplasmic form (Nap). Nitrate catabolism was studied under nitrate-rich and nitrate-limited conditions in chemostat cultures following transition from oxic to anoxic conditions. Intracellular NO production was reported qualitatively by assessing transcription of the NO-regulated genes encoding flavohaemoglobin (Hmp), flavorubredoxin (NorV) and hybrid cluster protein (Hcp). A more quantitative analysis of the extent of NO formation was gained by measuring production of N2O, the end-product of anoxic NO-detoxification. Under nitrate-rich conditions, the nar, nap, hmp, norV and hcp genes were all induced following transition from the oxic to anoxic state, and 20% of nitrate consumed in steady-state was released as N2O when nitrite had accumulated to millimolar levels. The kinetics of nitrate consumption, nitrite accumulation and N2O production were similar to those of wild-type in nitrate-sufficient cultures of a nap mutant. In contrast, in a narG mutant, the steady-state rate of N2O production was ~30-fold lower than that of the wild-type. Under nitrate-limited conditions, nap, but not nar, was up-regulated following transition from oxic to anoxic metabolism and very little N2O production was observed. Thus a combination of nitrate-sufficiency, nitrite accumulation and an active Nar-type nitrate reductase leads to NO and thence N2O production, and this can account for up to 20% of the nitrate catabolized

    Lower Wenlock black shales in the northern Holy Cross Mountains, Poland: Sedimentary and geochemical controls on the Ireviken Event in a deep marine setting

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    The stratigraphic variability and geochemistry of Llandovery/Wenlock (L/W) Series boundary sediments in Poland reveals that hemipelagic sedimentation under an anoxic/euxinic water column was interrupted by low density bottom currents or detached diluted turbid layers that resulted in intermittent seafloor oxygenation. TOC values and inorganic proxies throughout the Wilków 1 borehole section suggest variable redox conditions. U/Mo ratios >1 throughout much of the Aeronian and Telychian Stages, together with an absence of pyrite framboids, suggests oxygenated conditions prevailed. However, elevated TOC near the Aeronian/Telychian boundary, together with increased U/Th and V/(V+Ni) ratios and populations of small pyrite framboids are consistent with the development of dysoxic/anoxic conditions at that time. U/Th, V/Cr and V/(V+Ni) ratios, as well as Uauthig and Mo concentrations suggest that during the Ireviken black shale (IBS) deposition, bottom-water conditions deteriorated from oxic during the Telychian to mostly suboxic/anoxic immediately prior to the L/W boundary, before a brief reoxygenation at the end of the IBS sedimentation in the Sheinwoodian Stage. Rapid fluctuations in U/Mo during the Ireviken Event (IE) are characteristic of fluctuating redox conditions that culminated in an anoxic/euxinic seafloor in the Sheinwoodian. Following IBS deposition, conditions once again became oxygen deficient with the development of a euxinic zone in the water column. The Aeronian to Sheinwoodian deep-water redox history was unstable, and rapid fluctuations of the chemocline across the L/W Series boundary probably contributed to the IE extinctions, which affected mainly pelagic and hemipelagic fauna

    Extent and duration of marine anoxia during the Frasnian– Famennian (Late Devonian) mass extinction in Poland, Germany, Austria and France

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    Abstract – The intensity and extent of anoxia during the two Kellwasser anoxic events has been investigated in a range of European localities using amultidisciplinary approach (pyrite framboid assay, gamma-ray spectrometry and sediment fabric analysis). The results reveal that the development of the Lower Kellwasser Horizon in the early Late rhenana Zone (Frasnian Stage) in German type sections does not always coincide with anoxic events elsewhere in Europe and, in some locations, seafloor oxygenation improves during this interval. Thus, this anoxic event is not universally developed. In contrast, the Upper Kellwasser Horizon, developed in the Late linguiformis Zone (Frasnian Stage) in Germany correlates with a European-wide anoxic event that is manifest as an intensification of anoxia in basinal locations to the point that stable euxinic conditionswere developed (for example, in the basins of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). The interval also saw the spread of dysoxic waters into very shallow water (for instance, reefal) locations, and it seems reasonable to link the contemporaneous demise of many marine taxa to this phase of intense and widespread anoxia. In basinal locations, euxinic conditions persisted into the earliest Famennian with little change of depositional conditions. Only in the continental margin location of Austria was anoxia not developed at any time in the Late Devonian. Consequently it appears that the Upper Kellwasser anoxic event was an epicontinental seaway phenomenon, caused by the upward expansion of anoxia from deep basinal locales rather than an ‘oceanic’ anoxic event that has spilled laterally into epicontinental settings

    Enhanced susceptibility of Candida albicans to chlorhexidine under anoxia

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    Aim: Periodontal pockets can be colonized not only by bacteria, but also by Candida albicans. However, its role in periodontitis is unknown. This study evaluated the inhibitory performance of chlorhexidine digluconate under normoxic and anoxic conditions against 16 strains of C. albicans from periodontal pockets and other 20 from the oral mucosa. Methods: Strains were grown in normoxia and anoxia to adapt themselves to the different atmospheric conditions. Microdilution-based assays were carried out to determine the minimum concentrations of chlorhexidine that may restrain the conditioned candidal strains, in normoxia (normoxic MIC) and anoxia (anoxic MIC). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine on C. albicans under normoxic and anoxic conditions (α = 0.05). Results: The normoxic MIC of chlorhexidine varied broadly from 150 to 1200 μg/mL, whereas its anoxic MIC varied narrower from 2.34 to 37.5 μg/mL. Regarding the origins of strains, no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found. Conclusions: These results indicate that anoxic environmental conditions, compatible with periodontal pockets, tend to enhance C. albicans susceptibility to chlorhexidine.published_or_final_versio