1,735 research outputs found

    Unveiling the potential of marine-derived diterpenes from the order Alcyonacea as promising anti-obesity agents

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    Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a global health challenge characterized by various metabolic disorders, including HOMA-IR (insulin resistance), obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. In our pursuit of identifying natural alternatives for the development of effective and safe anti-obesity medications, we examined the potential of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea derived soft coral Sarcophyton glaucum, where serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, fetuin A and B, PTP1Β (Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B), adropin and omentin were determined. Furthermore, the expression of the UCP1 (Uncoupling protein 1) and PPARGC1A (Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-g coactivator-1a) genes have been assessed, to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of S. glaucum organic extract. Our findings demonstrated a significant decrease in glucose, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, fetuin A and B, and PTP1Β levels, accompanied by a significant increase in insulin, HDL-C, adropin, omentin, UCP1, and PPARGC1A expression after treatment with the soft coral extract. These promising outcomes can be attributed to the remarkable ingredients present in the extract, which were further supported by histopathological findings. In addition, a virtual screening protocol including molecular docking (MDock) and Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs) of 27 marine diterpenes was also explored to identify potential PTP1Β inhibitors targeting simultaneously the catalytic site and allosteric site, as well as fetuin A modulators. Moreover, the six most promising predicted marine diterpenes (4, 8, 9, 10, 13 and 14) were investigated for their pharmacokinetic properties, druglike nature and medicinal chemistry friendliness using the SwissADME platform. Of these, four marine diterpenes (4, 8, 9, and 10) were predicted to exhibit the appropriate drug-like properties

    The deepest record of the octocoral Acanthogorgia from the Red Sea

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    Octocorals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) have a global distribution and form benthic assemblages along the depth gradient, from shallow to deep waters. They often occur below SCUBA diving limits, where they can become dominant habitat builders and aggregate different taxa. During a cruise in February 2023, one octocoral specimen was collected at 1453 m depth at Kebrit Deep, in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea axis, an area with extremely high temperature and salinity profiles at depth. Morphological analysis coupled with DNA barcoding using two mitochondrial markers (COI and mtMuts), revealed that the coral belongs to Acanthogorgia, a genus of azooxanthellate octocorals known to occur from 3 to 2300 m depths in cold, temperate and tropical waters. In the Red Sea, the genus was previously only known from shallower waters. Hence, we report the deepest record of the genus Acanthogorgia from the warm and saline Red Sea basin. This finding provides novel insights on deep-water octocoral diversity in the Red Sea, a still scantily explored area of the world, while emphasizing the need for further explorations at depth

    Uji Toksisitas Anti Kanker Ekstrak Alga Coklat Padina sp Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach., dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test

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    Brown Algae Padina sp are marine biota that have secondary metabolites that are useful in the pharmaceutical field, especially raw materials for anti-cancer drugs. Bioactive compounds suspected of having anti-cancer activity were tested for activity by means of a toxicity test. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test Method. The purpose of this study was to test the anticancer activity of the crude extracts of Padina sp against Artemia salina L shrimp larvae using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test method. Algae samples were taken in the waters of Makupa Village. The activity test was carried out at the Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology and Pharmacy, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Unsrat. The test concentrations used of 10, 50, 100, 250 and 500 ppm, by first making 1000 ppm mother liquor. Data analysis used probit analysis to determine the toxicity value of LC50.The results obtained showed that the increase in concentration was followed by an increase in the number of mortality of the test animals where Padina sp 65%. The results of probit analysis obtained LC50 Padina sp 12.45 mg/l. Based on these data, bioactive compounds from Padina are more toxic,so it can be concluded that the content of bioactive compounds from Padina sp has the potential to be developed as raw materials for anticancer drugs.Keywords: Anticancer, Padina, Lethtality Test ABSTRAKAlga Coklat Padina sp merupakan biota laut yang memiliki metabolit sekunder yang bermanfaat dalam bidang farmasi terutama bahan baku obat anti kanker. Senyawa bioaktif yang diduga memiliki aktivitas anti kanker terlebih dahulu dilakukan pengujian aktivitas dengan cara uji toksisitas. Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu uji aktivitas antikanker dari ekstrak Padina sp terhadap larva udang Artemia salina L dengan menggunakan metode Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. Sampel alga di ambil di Perairan Desa Makupa. Uji aktivitas dilakukan di Laboratorium Bioteknologi dan Farmasetika Laut Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Unsrat. Konsentrasi uji menggunakan 10, 50, 100, 250 dan 500, ppm, dengan terlebih dahulu membuat larutan induk 1000 ppm. Analisis data menggunakan analisis probit untuk menentukan nilai toksisitas LC50. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukan bahwa kenaikan konsentrasi diikuti dengan kenaikan jumlah mortalitas hewan uji dimana Padina sp 65%. Hasil analisis probit diperoleh nilai Lethal consentrasi adalah 12.45 mg/l. Berdasarkan data tersebut senyawa bioaktif dari Padina lebih toksik dibandingkan dengan Halimeda sp, sehingga dapat disimpulkan kandungan senyawa bioaktif dari Padina sp berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi bahan baku obat antikanker. Kata kunci: Antikanker, Padina, Lethality Tes

    ......continued on the next page in The taxonomy of Indian gorgonians: an assessment of the descriptive records of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) recorded as occurring in the territorial waters of India, along with neighbouring regions and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the highlighting of perceived unethical practice

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    ......continued on the next pagePublished as part of Ramvilas, Ghosh, Alderslade, Philip & Ranjeet, Kutty, 2023, The taxonomy of Indian gorgonians: an assessment of the descriptive records of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) recorded as occurring in the territorial waters of India, along with neighbouring regions and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the highlighting of perceived unethical practice, pp. 1-124 in Zootaxa 5236 (1) on page 12, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5236.1.1, http://zenodo.org/record/763932

    Guarding net effects on landings and discards in Mediterranean trammel net fishery: Case analysis of Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (Central Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

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    Discards remain among the main negative impacts of fishing activities, and their reductions are strengthened by the European Common Fisheries Policy (European Regulation 1380/2013). Trammel net fisheries appear more sustainable compared with other fishing techniques, especially from an ecological viewpoint. Despite this, reports show that trammel net fisheries deliver discard quantities between 10% and 43% of the total catch biomass. To supplement existing information, this current work attempts to address the discard reduction using guarding net in the small-scale fisheries of Egadi Islands MPA (Western Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea). To assess the reduction of unwanted catches, 48 experimental fishing trials were conducted within a 6-month period. The experimental fishing trial employed a trammel net made up of 20 panels alternated with two different net configurations. The control panels (CN) held a large outer (180 mm) and small inner (31.25 mm) meshes. The test panels (GN) with guarding net constituted a three-mesh-high (50-mm mesh size) net placed between trammel net panels and a lead line. A total of 3,310 individuals belonging to 106 taxa and nine phyla were caught. Crustaceans were the most abundant unwanted catches in the control panels, whereas bioconstructions occurred in the guarding net panels. The discard ratios of CN and GN panels were statistically different (t-value = –2.55; p< 0.05). The analysis of catch per unit effort showed higher catches of CN panels for both commercial and discard fractions (p< 0.05). Moreover, the guarding net panels caught the main discarded species at 20% lower compared with the control. The overall value of the catch at the CN panels (€ 3,366.90) was higher than the total income (€ 2,043.70) generated using the GN panels, which suggests a significant commercial loss of 40% (p< 0.05)

    Effects of Nutrient Availability on the Thermal Optima and Sensitivities of Galápagos Seaweeds

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    Thermal sensitivity in ectothermic organisms is highly context-dependent and may explain the varied responses to climate change among species and with ambient environmental conditions. As such, there is renewed interest to examine the potential combined effects of local factors (i.e., nutrients) and global temperature on thermal biology. This study was conducted to determine whether nutrients influence the thermal optima and sensitivities (estimated as the Topt, and slope values E and Eh, respectively) of four genera of Galápagos seaweeds (Padina, Caulerpa, Ulva, and Ochtodes) through estimating thermal performance curves for respiration (R) and net photosynthesis (NP). The thermal optimum varied substantially across taxa (27.6-36 °C) and was enhanced ~2 °C under nutrient additions in Padina and Caulerpa genera. Ulva spp. displayed reduced sensitivity to higher temperatures under enrichment. Lastly, NP across taxa showed lower optimal temperatures than R, suggesting further warming could reduce primary productivity, with potentially far-reaching implications for marine food webs.Master of Scienc

    Evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in Pennatulacea

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    We examine the phylogeny of sea pens using sequences of whole mitochondrial genomes and the nuclear ribosomal cluster generated through low coverage Illumina sequencing. Taxon sampling includes 30 species in 19 genera representing 13 families. Ancestral state reconstruction shows that most sea pen mitochondrial genomes have the ancestral gene order, and that Pennatulacea with diverse gene orders are found in a single clade. The monophyly of Pennatulidae and Protoptilidae are rejected by both the mitochondrial and nuclear dataset, while the mitochondrial dataset further rejects monophyly of Virgulariidae, and the nuclear dataset rejects monophyly of Kophobelemnidae. We show discordance between nuclear ribosomal gene cluster phylogenies and whole mitochondrial genome phylogenies and highlight key Pennatulacea taxa that could be included in cnidarian genome-wide studies to better resolve the sea pen tree of life. We further illustrate how well frequently sequenced markers capture the overall diversity of the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal genes in sea pens

    A dataset of cold-water coral distribution records

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    Species distribution data are key for monitoring present and future biodiversity patterns and informing conservation and management strategies. Large biodiversity information facilities often contain spatial and taxonomic errors that reduce the quality of the provided data. Moreover, datasets are frequently shared in varying formats, inhibiting proper integration and interoperability. Here, we provide a quality-controlled dataset of the diversity and distribution of cold-water corals, which provide key ecosystem services and are considered vulnerable to human activities and climate change effects. We use the common term cold-water corals to refer to species of the orders Alcyonacea, Antipatharia, Pennatulacea, Scleractinia, Zoantharia of the subphylum Anthozoa, and order Anthoathecata of the class Hydrozoa. Distribution records were collated from multiple sources, standardized using the Darwin Core Standard, dereplicated, taxonomically corrected and flagged for potential vertical and geographic distribution errors based on peer-reviewed published literature and expert consulting. This resulted in 817,559 quality-controlled records of 1,170 accepted species of cold-water corals, openly available under the FAIR principle of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of data. The dataset represents the most updated baseline for the global cold-water coral diversity, and it can be used by the broad scientific community to provide insights into biodiversity patterns and their drivers, identify regions of high biodiversity and endemicity, and project potential redistribution under future climate change. It can also be used by managers and stakeholders to guide biodiversity conservation and prioritization actions against biodiversity loss

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Indo-Pacific soft coral Sinularia acuta Manuputty and van Ofwegen, 2007 (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea)

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    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the soft coral Sinularia acuta Manuputty and van Ofwegen, 2007 was sequenced and annotated using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS). The mitogenome of S. acuta was 18,730 bp in length and consisted of 14 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and only one transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Met). The base composition was 30.18% A, 16.46% C, 19.35% G, and 34.00% T, with a total A + T content of 64.19%. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship among Sinularia acuta, Sinularia penghuensis, and Sinularia maxima

    Effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the distribution and co-occurrence of cold-water corals

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    Cold-water corals (CWCs) are bioengineering species that can increase habitat heterogeneity and improve the deep sea’s biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Knowledge of their distribution provides a critical baseline for assessing the effect of natural and anthropogenic impacts on these important deep-sea habitats. The aims of this study are: i) provide new data on the spatial distribution of six CWCs species in the Strait of Sicily, ii) describe the principal environmental and anthropogenic variables that play a role in shaping their distribution, iii) identify hotspots in which individuals belonging to the various species co-occur. Presence-only data of six CWCs species, ten environmental variables (depth, slope, rugosity, aspect, flowdir, temperature, salinity, north bottom current, east bottom current, chlorophyll-a), and one variable relating to bottom trawling effort (Automatic Information System – AIS) were used to predict the suitable habitats. We used Maximum Entropy modelling (MaxEnt) approach and used the AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and TSS (true skill statistics) to evaluate the model performance. The results showed excellent AUC, TSS and AUC’s standard deviation mean values for all six species. The validation show high predictive performance. MaxEnt identified slope, depth, and rugosity as the most important predictors, showing the highest percentage contribution for all six species considered. Throughout the study area, highlyinterspecific persistent density hotspot of CWCs co-occurrence were discovered, with a total extension of 4.05 km2 where all species co-occur. Although studies on the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors that impact the distribution of these species of conservation interest remain scarce, the results of this study offer useful guidance for decision-makers to develop necessary conservation measures
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