21,283 research outputs found

    In Pursuit of Experience: The Authentic Documentation of Experience in Beat Generation Literature

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    Throughout their lives the authors of The Beat Generation sought an escape from the conformity of mid-century American life, in favour of fresh thrilling experiences to influence their writing. The writers of the Beat Generation developed writing methods that authentically document their real-life experiences. Therefore, this thesis examines the documentary nature of literature that came out of this Generation. The first section of the essay explores Beat literature as memoir; arguing that Kerouac's prose is based on his own first-hand experience recollected after the event. This section also argues that due to its fast pace and lack of revision, the Spontaneous Prose Method can be used by authors as a form suited to the authentic documentation of experience. The second chapter looks at the use of transcription methods to document a moment, or specific event, written during the experience. This chapter compares Gary Snyder's Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, Ginsberg's 'Wichita Vortex Sutra', and Kerouac's Blues Poems as poetry that authentically portrays a moment of experience to the reader. The final chapter explores the more experimental methods of documentation, and whether any authenticity was lost to experimentation. The chapter also explores the Beat use of drugs on the content and form of the literature

    Comedians without a Cause: The Politics and Aesthetics of Humour in Dutch Cabaret (1966-2020)

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    Comedians play an important role in society and public debate. While comedians have been considered important cultural critics for quite some time, comedy has acquired a new social and political significance in recent years, with humour taking centre stage in political and social debates around issues of identity, social justice, and freedom of speech. To understand the shifting meanings and political implications of humour within a Dutch context, this PhD thesis examines the political and aesthetic workings of humour in the highly popular Dutch cabaret genre, focusing on cabaret performances from the 1960s to the present. The central questions of the thesis are: how do comedians use humour to deliver social critique, and how does their humour resonate with political ideologies? These questions are answered by adopting a cultural studies approach to humour, which is used to analyse Dutch cabaret performances, and by studying related materials such as reviews and media interviews with comedians. This thesis shows that, from the 1960s onwards, Dutch comedians have been considered ‚Äėprogressive rebels‚Äô ‚Äď politically engaged, subversive, and carrying a left-wing political agenda ‚Äď but that this image is in need of correction. While we tend to look for progressive political messages in the work of comedians who present themselves as being anti-establishment rebels ‚Äď such as Youp van ‚Äėt Hek, Hans Teeuwen, and Theo Maassen ‚Äď this thesis demonstrates that their transgressive and provocative humour tends to protect social hierarchies and relationships of power. Moreover, it shows that, paradoxically, both the deliberately moderate and nuanced humour of Wim Kan and Claudia de Breij, and the seemingly past-oriented nostalgia of Alex Klaasen, are more radical and progressive than the transgressive humour of van ‚Äėt Hek, Teeuwen and Maassen. Finally, comedians who present absurdist or deconstructionist forms of humour, such as the early student cabarets, Freek de Jonge, and Micha Wertheim, tend to disassociate themselves from an explicit political engagement. By challenging the dominant image of the Dutch comedian as a ‚Äėprogressive rebel,‚Äô this thesis contributes to a better understanding of humour in the present cultural moment, in which humour is often either not taken seriously, or one-sidedly celebrated as being merely pleasurable, innocent, or progressively liberating. In so doing, this thesis concludes, the ‚Äėdark‚Äô and more conservative sides of humour tend to get obscured

    Desarrollo de papeles biocativos por injerto de moléculas específicas en celulosa

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    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2019En la presente tesis se presenta el desarrollo de papeles bioactivos con potencial aplicaci√≥n en el envasado activo de alimentos. Para tal fin, se propuso el injerto de eugenol, un compuesto de origen natural con propiedades antimicrobiana, antioxidante y repelente de insectos, en celulosa, utilizando √°cido policarbox√≠lico como agente ligante. Con el objetivo de evaluar la escalabilidad del proceso propuesto, se estudiaron distintas tecnolog√≠as de curado, tales como calentamiento por convecci√≥n, infrarrojo, microondas y conducci√≥n. En todos los casos, se analizaron la influencia de las variables operativas sobre el avance de la reacci√≥n y propiedades finales del papel preparado, utilizando un dise√Īo de experimentos Doehlert para elegir las experiencias a realizar, y analizando los resultados mediante metodolog√≠a de superficie de respuesta y an√°lisis estad√≠stico ANOVA. Se pudo comprobar que la reacci√≥n de injerto de eugenol en papel comercial se produjo con √©xito en todas las tecnolog√≠as estudiadas. Asimismo, se encontraron las condiciones √≥ptimas de reacci√≥n para cada una de las tecnolog√≠as, para lo cual se busc√≥ un compromiso entre el avance de la reacci√≥n y las propiedades finales del material (mec√°nicas y color). A partir de estas condiciones, se prepararon papeles y se realiz√≥ una caracterizaci√≥n m√°s espec√≠fica para su aplicaci√≥n como envase de alimentos comparando los papeles modificados con el papel virgen. Se analizaron las propiedades mec√°nicas por ensayo de tracci√≥n, rasgado y punzonado y se midi√≥ la absorci√≥n de agua y la capacidad de degradaci√≥n. Por otro lado, las propiedades bioactivas analizadas fueron la actividad antioxidante, antimicrobiana, repelente e insecticida de gorgojos (T. castaneum y R. dominica). Una vez probado que el papel modificado presenta buenas caracter√≠sticas f√≠sicas y bioactivas para su posible aplicaci√≥n en el envasado de alimentos, se realizaron prototipos de envasado para harina, como alimento representativo de alimentos derivados de cereales, susceptibles al ataque de plagas. En este estudio se analiz√≥ la migraci√≥n de reactivos, propiedades organol√©pticas y conservaci√≥n del alimento, arrojando resultados promisorios para la industria de envases de alimentos. Finalmente, se realiz√≥ una comparaci√≥n de las tecnolog√≠as de curado ensayadas, analizando diferentes aspectos como avance de reacci√≥n, propiedades finales, apariencia, tiempo de reacci√≥n, consumo de energ√≠a, entre otros, como as√≠ tambi√©n disponibilidad y uso de estas tecnolog√≠as a escala industrial, seleccionando la tecnolog√≠a de conducci√≥n como la m√°s adecuada para una propuesta de escalado industrial.Fil: Muratore, Florencia. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, F√≠sicas y Naturales; Argentina.Fil: Muratore, Florencia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Instituto de Investigaci√≥n y Desarrollo en Ingenier√≠a de Procesos y Qu√≠mica Aplicada; Argentina

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Implementing Health Impact Assessment as a Required Component of Government Policymaking: A Multi-Level Exploration of the Determinants of Healthy Public Policy

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    It is widely understood that the public policies of ‚Äėnon-health‚Äô government sectors have greater impacts on population health than those of the traditional healthcare realm. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a decision support tool that identifies and promotes the health benefits of policies while also mitigating their unintended negative consequences. Despite numerous calls to do so, the Ontario government has yet to implement HIA as a required component of policy development. This dissertation therefore sought to identify the contexts and factors that may both enable and impede HIA use at the sub-national (i.e., provincial, territorial, or state) government level. The three integrated articles of this dissertation provide insights into specific aspects of the policy process as they relate to HIA. Chapter one details a case study of purposive information-seeking among public servants within Ontario‚Äôs Ministry of Education (MOE). Situated within Ontario‚Äôs Ministry of Health (MOH), chapter two presents a case study of policy collaboration between health and ‚Äėnon-health‚Äô ministries. Finally, chapter three details a framework analysis of the political factors supporting health impact tool use in two sub-national jurisdictions ‚Äď namely, Qu√©bec and South Australia. MOE respondents (N=9) identified four components of policymaking ‚Äėdue diligence‚Äô, including evidence retrieval, consultation and collaboration, referencing, and risk analysis. As prospective HIA users, they also confirmed that information is not routinely sought to mitigate the potential negative health impacts of education-based policies. MOH respondents (N=8) identified the bureaucratic hierarchy as the brokering mechanism for inter-ministerial policy development. As prospective HIA stewards, they also confirmed that the ministry does not proactively flag the potential negative health impacts of non-health sector policies. Finally, ‚Äėlessons learned‚Äô from case articles specific to Qu√©bec (n=12) and South Australia (n=17) identified the political factors supporting tool use at different stages of the policy cycle, including agenda setting (‚Äėpolicy elites‚Äô and ‚Äėpolitical culture‚Äô), implementation (‚Äėjurisdiction‚Äô), and sustained implementation (‚Äėinstitutional power‚Äô). This work provides important insights into ‚Äėreal life‚Äô policymaking. By highlighting existing facilitators of and barriers to HIA use, the findings offer a useful starting point from which proponents may tailor context-specific strategies to sustainably implement HIA at the sub-national government level

    Observation of residues content after application of a medium-chain fatty acids mixture at the end of alcoholic fermentation

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    This study focused on applying a patented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) mixture at the end of alcoholic fermentation and monitoring its residues. MCFAs are a promising agent that has the potential to increase the efficiency of sulfur dioxide and ultimately minimize its doses, which is one of the important goals of wine research today. Detailed octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acid contents were observed during the experiment. The MCFA mixture was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, and 60 mg/L. GC-MS determined the content of individual fatty acids. The results showed that the use of the investigated mixture of fatty acids at doses of 10 and 20 mg/L did not cause an increase in the content of individual fatty acids residues. The octanoic acid content after application of the 20 mg/L MCFA mixture was 8.24 mg/L after 744 h, while the untreated control variant showed a value of 7.71 mg/L. The performed sensory analysis also did not show a negative effect of MCFA application on the sensory properties of wine. Therefore, applying an MCFA mixture at 10 and 20 mg/L can be recommended as a safe alternative following alcoholic fermentation. However, the results obtained can also serve as a valuable basis for permitting the use of MCFA in the proceeding OIV approval process. The research thus opens the possibility of expanding a new oenological agent capable of reducing SO2 doses.Operational Program Research, Development and Education [IGA-ZF/2021-SI1011, CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_017/0002334

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis
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