1,231,996 research outputs found

    Implementing the new EU rural development : the Spanish case

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    A brief overview region by region of the activities planned to be carried out with support from EAGGF in 2000-2006, with a view to build up a sustainable agriculture and maintain a living rural world all over SpainOfrece una visión por regiones de la planificación de actividades dentro de los fondos de garantía 2000-2006 y su apoyo a una agricultura sostenible y al mantenimiento del mundo rural en España

    Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

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    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context, it will lead to insufficient, and in worst case wrong, understandings and subsequently inadequate policy recommendations

    General Equilibrium Measures of Agricultural Policy Bias in Fifteen Developing Countries

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    A comparative analysis of 15 developing countries shows that, during the 1990s, indirect taxes, tariffs, and exchange rates significantly discriminated against agriculture in only one country (Malawi), was largely neutral in five (Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Zimbabwe), provided a moderate subsidy to agriculture in four (Mexico, Tanzania, Venezuela, and Zambia), and strongly favored agriculture in five (Egypt, Korea, Morocco, Mozambique, and Tunisia). In contrast to earlier partial equilibrium results, our general equilibrium analysis indicates that exchange rate changes can lead to anything between strongly increasing and strongly decreasing relative agriculture/non-agriculture incentives, depending on relative trade shares and relative tradability of agricultural and non-agricultural commodities. Country-specific circumstances greatly affect the relative impact of trade policies on agriculture and the rest of the economy in a general equilibrium setting. Earlier partial equilibrium measures of policy bias could not adequately incorporate country heterogeneity and are therefore likely to have overstated the bias. In any case, from the empirical results with our sample of countries, we conclude that any incentive bias against agriculture in the 1980s had mostly disappeared by the 1990s.urban bias, food and agricultural policy; general equilibrium modelling

    What makes organic agriculture move - protest, meaning or market? A polyocular approach to the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture

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    Many different actors have hopes and aspirations for the future of organic agriculture. They have different perspectives on organic agriculture with different understandings of what it is and what makes it move. Each perspective entails a certain understanding of organic agriculture featuring certain concepts and values and a particular logic or rationality. It is important to acknowledge this heterogeneity when investigating the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture. We suggest a polyocular approach that facilitates a comprehensive and balanced understanding of organic agriculture by enabling us to handle different perspectives reflexively. To illustrate this approach we describe three significant perspectives on organic agriculture based on protest, meaning and market. No perspective is the ‘right’ one and, we claim, different perspectives on organic agriculture cannot be merged to one. We hope that polyocularity as a general analytical tool, and the three specific perspectives, will be helpful in understanding the future development of organic agriculture and how it may be influenced

    Setting the Table for Urban Agriculture

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    This article provides context for the various roles that law plays in the cultivation of urban agriculture. This article first reflects on how popular support for the development of a legal framework that promotes urban agriculture is rooted deeply in American agrarian traditions. The article then notes the palatable tension between the rhetoric in support of urban agriculture and the modes of urban law and planning that dominated the twentieth century. It considers how various approaches to urban planning have facilitated or thwarted urban agriculture and surveys recent legal developments designed to accommodate and encourage urban agriculture projects as alternatives to conventional industrial agriculture. Next, the article argues that, notwithstanding the growing enthusiasm for urban agriculture, serious equity and ecological concerns lie within the forms of modern urban agriculture and that careful strategic planning should align the implementation of the legal tools available not only with the traditional values of agrarianism, but also with addressing these and other concerns. This article concludes by recommending key considerations for use of legal tools in moving forward to develop urban agriculture that, if implemented, will improve food systems in general

    Brand Agriculture and Economic Geography: A General Equilibrium Analysis

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    This paper presents a general equilibrium model of NEG incorporating the brand agriculture which produces differentiated agricultural products. Focusing on the core-periphery space, we show that highly differentiated brand agriculture can be sustained in the periphery even when the accessibility of the core market is not particulary good. This result gives support for promoting innovation in rural area in order to avoid direct price competition in generic commodity market under unfavorable competitive condition.Brand agriculture, NEG, Core-periphery

    Policy bias and agriculture: partial and general equilibrium measures

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    The paper examines the impact of industrial protection, agricultural export taxes, and overvaluation of the exchange rate on the balance between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. A variety of agricultural terms-of-trade indices are constructed to measure the policy bias against agriculture in a general equilibrium framework that incorporates traded and non-traded goods. These general equilibrium measures are compared to earlier work in a partial equilibrium framework assuming perfect substitutability between domestic and traded goods. Starting from a stylized computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Tanzania, we simulate a 25 percent tariff on non-agriculture and a 25 percent export tax on agriculture. We also consider the impact of changes in the equilibrium exchange rate. The results indicate that the partial equilibrium measures miss much of the action operating through indirect product and factor market linkages, while overstating the strength of the linkages between changes in the exchange rate and prices of traded goods on the agricultural terms of trade.Terms of trade., Equilibrium (Economics) Mathematical models., Tanzania., Computable general equilibrium (CGE)., Agricultural trade.,

    Importing into the EU - Council Regulation (EEC) No 1991/2006

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    Report on the presentation held at BioFach, 23.02.2008, by Herman Van Boxem (European Commission, Agriculture and rural development Directorate-General Unit F5 - Organic farming) compiled by Beate Huber, FiB

    General equilibrium measures of agricultural policy bias in fifteen developing countries

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    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of the extent to which indirect taxes, tariffs, and exchange rates affected relative price incentives for agricultural production in a representative sample of 15 developing countries in the 1990s. Empirical studies from the 1980s, using partial equilibrium methodologies, supported the view that policies in many developing countries imparted a major incentive bias against agriculture. Eliminating this bias was one of the goals of policy reform strategies, including structural adjustment programs, supported by the World Bank and others; and many countries undertook such reforms in the 1990s. In our sample, general equilibrium analysis indicates that, in the 1990s, the economywide system of indirect taxes, including tariffs and export taxes, significantly discriminated against agriculture in only one country, was largely neutral in five, provided a moderate subsidy to agriculture in four, and strongly favored agriculture in five. Earlier work assumed that overvaluation of the exchange rate would hurt agriculture, which was assumed to be largely tradable. In a general equilibrium setting, changes in the exchange rate can as demonstrated in this paper lead to anything between strongly increasing and decreasing relative agriculture/non-agriculture incentives, depending on relative trade shares. We conclude that, whatever incentive bias there was in the 1980s, it has mostly disappeared by the 1990s. We also find that it is difficult to generalize-country specific circumstances greatly affect the relative impact of trade policies on agriculture and the rural economy. Authors' Abstract.

    Institutional change in the international governance of agriculture: a revised account

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    The place of agriculture in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) prior to 1986 is usually described in terms of either exclusion or exemption from general trading rules. This paper reevaluates the ‘exemption’ argument and its corollary that the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) represented a punctuated equilibrium in the governance of agriculture. Instead it traces the dynamics of institutional change through the history of the GATT/WTO, distinguishing between multilateral trading rounds and the framework of trade rules as separate but linked contexts for addressing agricultural trade matters; and further disaggregating the latter into broad principles and specific rules. It is argued that the broad principles lacked detail but, paradoxically, initially this facilitated an approach to dispute settlement based on conciliation. Subsequent trade tensions exposed an inability to make definitive legal decisions on the compatibility of specific national rules with broad GATT principles. The AoA is rooted in these institutional antecedents, but claims of the legalization of the trade regime are belied by a continued reliance on political flexibility and bargaining
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