4,030 research outputs found

    The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain

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    This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oil is related to the olive production, whereas less than 0.5% is due to the other components such as bottle, cap and label. Over the studied period, the green water footprint in absolute terms of Spanish olive oil production represents about 72% in rainfed systems and just 12% in irrigated olive orchards. Blue and grey water footprints represent 6% and 10% of the national water footprint, respectively. It is shown that olive production is concentrated in regions with the smallest water footprint per unit of product. However, the increase of groundwater consumption in the main olive producing region (Andalusia), from 98 to 378 Mm3 between 1997 and 2008, has added significant pressure in the upstream Guadalquivir basin. This raises questions about the sustainability of irrigated olive orchards for export from the region. Finally, the virtual water related to olive oil exports illustrate the importance of green water footprint of rainfed olives amounting to about 77% of the total virtual water exports

    Relatório de atividades 2013 - Instituto Souza Cruz

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    Com o compromisso social de publicizar, anualmente, as ações que desenvolve em prol da agricultura familiar, o Instituto Souza Cruz disponibiliza o Relatório de Atividades 2013. O documento apresenta, ainda, o balanço financeiro da organização no ano passado, com destaque para a expansão do programa Novos Rurais e a realização da V Jornada Nacional do Jovem Rural

    Is emamectin benzoate effective against the different stages of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)?

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    peer-reviewedThis work was partially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (project AGL 2007-66130-C03-02 to P. Medina). F. Amor and P. Bengochea acknowledge the ministry of Education and Culture and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) for the doctoral fellowships. Special thanks to Syngenta Agro S.A. for their support.The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is a major polyphagous pest in greenhouses and open fields worldwide and also a main problem in sweet pepper greenhouses. The effectiveness of the pesticide emamectin benzoate was tested in the laboratory on different stages of S. exigua using different concentrations and uptake routes. After dipping young (48-h-old) S. exigua eggs in emamectin benzoate at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/L a.i. the chemical did not exhibit any ovicidal activity. There was, however, progressive neonate mortality at all concentrations, culminating at 72 hours after hatching, when 100% of the larvae from the treated young eggs died. Second and fourth instar S. exigua larvae did not exhibit significant mortality when exposed to the inert surfaces which were treated. In contrast, ingesting a diet contaminated with 0.5 mg/L a.i. of emamectin benzoate caused 100% mortality in L2 and L4 larvae 24 and 72 hours after ingestion, respectively. The LC50 value of the compound against L4 larvae that fed on sprayed sweet pepper leaves for 24 hours was 0.81 mg/L a.i.. When adults were fed on a solution of 0.5 mg/L a.i., there was a reduction in the female and male lifespan of 29.3% and 55.3%, respectively. Fecundity was reduced by more than 99%. These data suggest that emamectin benzoate is not only a useful insecticide when ingested by beet armyworm larvae but it also has ovolarvicidal and adult activity.Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovatio

    Concentrations of soil potassium after long-term organic dairy production

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    On five long-term organic dairy farms aiming at self-sufficiency with nutrients, soil concentrations of ammonium-acetate lactate extractable potassium (K-AL) and acid-soluble K was measured twice in topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) over periods of 6-14 years. Organic management had occurred for >9 years at the second sampling. On average there were most probably field level K-deficits. Even so, topsoil K-AL concentrations were medium high (65-155 mg K kg–1 soil), and did not decrease during the study period. However, for three farms, topsoil K-AL was approaching a minimum level determined by soil texture, where further decrease is slow. Subsoil K-AL concentrations were generally low (<65). The soils were mostly light-textured, and reserves of K-releasing soil minerals (illite) were low, never exceeding 6% of the mineral particles <2 mm diameter. Topsoil acid-soluble K concentrations were low (<300 mg K kg–1 soil) on two farms, medium (300–800) on three farms and decreased significantly on one farm. Cation-exchange capacity increased on two farms. This may indicate increased amount of expanded clay minerals caused by K-depletion. On self-sufficient organic dairy farms, purchased nutrients will be required by low soil nutrient reserves to avoid seriously decreased yields and quality of crops

    Relatório de atividades 2012 - Instituto Souza Cruz

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    Neste Relatório de Atividades, o Instituto Souza Cruz apresenta as ações desenvolvidas ao longo de 2012 que contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da juventude rural e, consequentemente, para o fortalecimento da agricultura familiar brasileira. Alguns destaques são o lançamento do programa Novos Rurais e a realização do IV Intercâmbio da Juventude Rural Brasileira. O documento traz ainda o balanço financeiro do período

    A Model of Later Nineteenth Century European Economic Development

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    Editada en la Fundación Empresa PúblicaEn este trabajo se desarrolla y estima un modelo para explicar los motivos por los cuales algunos países europeos prosperaron más rápidamente que otros en el período 1860- 1910. El modelo cuantifica por dos vías distintas los factores que contribuyeron a las diferencias de ingreso entre España y Gran Bretaña. Los determinantes que se consideran más significativos son los recursos naturales, la política económica y la herencia cultural reflejada en los niveles educativos.A model is developed and estimated to explain why some European countries were richer than others between 1860 and 1910 and why some increased their prosperity faster in the period. The model quantifies by two methods some of the contributors to the income gap between the economies of Spain and Britain in 1880 and 1910. Determinants of European nations' output per head included natural endowments (climate and coal deposits), economic policy (tariff protection and very marginally the gold standard), and cultural heritage as reflected in literacy. Measurement errors, country specific factors and perhaps variables not considered in this analysis account for less than half Spanish-UK income differences at the dates estimated.Publicad

    A Gold Rush Theory of Economic Development

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    This paper presents a model of social learning about the suitability of local conditions for new business ventures and explores its implications for the microeconomic patterns of economic development. I show that: i) firms tend to 'rush' into business ventures with which other firms have had surprising success thus causing development to be 'lumpy'; ii) sufficient business confidence is crucial for fostering economic growth; iii) development may involve wave-like patterns of growth where successive business ventures are first pursued and then given up; iv) there is, nevertheless, no guarantee that firms pursue the best venture even in the long-run.Economic Development, Social Learning, Lumpiness
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