37,115 research outputs found

    Identifying and investigating pesticide application types to promote a more sustainable pesticide use: the case of smallholders in Boyacá, Colombia

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    The present paper investigates pesticide application types adopted by smallholder potato producers in the Department of Boyacá , Colombia. In this region, environmental, health and adverse economic effects due to pesticide mis- or over-use respectively have been observed. Firstly, pesticide application types were identified based on input-effectiveness. Secondly, their determinants of adoption were investigated. Finally suggestions were given to develop intervention options for transition towards a more sustainable pesticide use. Three application types were identified for fungicide and insecticide. The types differed in terms of input (intensity of pesticide application), effect (damage control), frequency of application, average quantity applied per application, chemical class, and productivity. Then, the determinants of different pesticide application types were investigated with a multinomial logistic regression approach and applying the integrative agent centred (IAC) framework. The area of the plot, attendance at training sessions and educational and income levels were among the most relevant determinants. The analysis suggested that better pesticide use could be fostered to reduce pesticide-related risks in the region. Intervention options were outlined, which may help in targeting this issue. They aim not only at educating farmers, but to change their social and institutional context, by involving other agents of the agricultural system (i.e. pesticide producers), facilitating new institutional settings (i.e. cooperatives) and targeting social dynamics (i.e. conformity to social norms)

    Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de girassol de ensaio final de primeiro ano no Nordeste brasileiro na safra de 2009.

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    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade de cultivares de girassol de ensaio final de primeiro ano no Nordeste brasileiro, na safra 2009, para fins de recomendação. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 22 tratamentos. Observaram-se diferenças significativas entre as cultivares, os ambientes e a interação cultivares x ambientes, indicando mudanças no desempenho das cultivares de girassol nos diversos ambientes avaliados. As cultivares V 50070, M 735, NTO 2.0 e V 70003 destacaram-se como mais adaptadas para as condições favoráveis de ambiente, enquanto que a cultivar BRS GIRA 25 mostrou adaptação para as condições desfavoráveis de ambiente. As cultivares M 734, EXP 146 DM, HLT 5011, HLA 860 HO, BRS GIRA 24, MULTISSOL e ALBISOL 2 expressaram adaptabilidade ampla, o que as torna de grande interesse para a agricultura regional

    Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de girassol de ensaio final de segundo ano no Agreste Nordestino na safra 2009.

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    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade de cultivares de girassol da rede de Ensaio Final de Segundo Ano, no Agreste Nordestino, no ano agrícola de 2009. Estas cultivares foram submetidas a diferentes ambientes do Nordeste brasileiro, para fins de recomendação. Para isso, os ensaios foram instalados nos estados de Sergipe, Alagoas e Rio Grande do Norte. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições de dezoito tratamentos. As cultivares V 20041, M 734, BRS GIRA 06, EXP 1452 CL e TRITON MAX justificaram suas recomendações para as condições de ambientes favoráveis. Por outro lado, a cultivar NEON se destacou para as condições de ambientes não favoráveis. As cultivares BRS GIRA 26, HLS 07, HLT 5004 e HELIO 358 apresentaram adaptabilidade ampla em todos os ambientes e se consubstanciam em excelentes alternativas para a agricultura regional

    índice de sítio diamétrico: um método alternativo para estimar a qualidade do sítio em florestas de Nothofagus obliqua E N. alpina

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    The first step for constructing models of tree growth and yield is site quality assessment. To estimate this attribute, several methodologies are available in which site index (SI) is a standard one. However, this approach, that uses height at a reference age of trees, can be simplified if age is replaced by another reference variable easier to measure. In this case, the diametric site index (DSI) represents the mean height of dominant trees at a reference mean diameter at breast height. The aim of this work was to develop DSI in pure and mixed Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua forests, and compare these models with the classical proposals based on height-age variables, within the temperate forest of northwestern Patagonia from Argentina, South America. Data originated from temporary plots and stem analyses were used. Tree age and diameter at breast height were obtained from each plot and used for establishing DSI family functions, following the guide-curve methodology. Site classes were proportionally represented among DSI curves of 17.0, 21.5, 26.0, 30.5 and 35.0 m of dominant tree height. Reference diameter instead of reference age can be cautiously used in order to fit site index models.Primeiro passo para a construção de modelos de crescimento e produção de árvores e a avaliação da qualidade do sítio. Para estimar este atributo, várias metodologias estão disponíveis, na qual o índice de sítio (IS) é padrão. No entanto, esta abordagem, que utiliza uma altura na idade de referência, pode ser simplificada se a idade é substituída por outra variável de referência mais fácil de medir. Neste caso, o índice de índice de sítio diamétrico (ISD) representa a altura média das árvores dominantes de um diâmetro à altura do peito referência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver ISD para florestas puras e mistas de Nothofagus alpina e N. obliqua, e comparar esses modelos com as propostas clássicas baseadas nas variáveis altura-idade, para a floresta temperada do noroeste da Patagônia da Argentina, América do Sul. Dados provenientes de parcelas temporárias e análises de tronco foram utilizados. Foram obtidos idade e diâmetro à altura do peito de cada parcela e utilizados para o estabelecimento das funções da família DSI, seguindo a metodologia da curva-guia. Classes de sítio foram proporcionalmente representados entre curvas DSI de 17,0; 21,5; 26,0; 30,5 e 35,0 m de altura da árvore dominante. O diâmetro de referência em vez da idade de referência pode ser usado com cautela para ajustar modelos de índice de sítio.Fil: Attis Beltran, Hernan. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Asentamiento Universidad San Martin de Los Andes; Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; ArgentinaFil: Chauchards, Luis Mario. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; ArgentinaFil: Velásquez, Abel. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; ArgentinaFil: Sbrancia, Renato. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; ArgentinaFil: Martínez Pastur, Guillermo José. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Comahue; Argentin

    The Relationship between Social Responsibility and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Agri-Food Sector of Southeast Spain

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    This study aims to contribute to the existing debate on the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientation on different measures of business performance through the proposal of a conceptual model. Drawing on stakeholder theory, we conceptualize CSR as a broad and multidimensional construct with seven dimensions: employees, partners, customers, farmers, environment, community, and competition. We also extend the concept of business performance, which includes tangible variables, namely financial performance (FP) and export performance (EXP), as well as intangible variables, namely image and reputation (IR) and the satisfaction of relevant stakeholders (SS). The research context of this study is the agri-food sector in southeastern Spain. This sector has been the focus of attention of numerous researchers due to the relevance that social and environmental aspects have had in its development. To test the proposed model, the partial least-squares technique (PLS-SEM) was applied to data collected by means of a survey from a sample of 107 companies, which represent 81.4% of the turnover of the sector analyzed. The results show that CSR has a positive effect on financial performance, improves the volume and performance of exports, positively affects the corporate image and reputation, and increases the level of satisfaction of relevant stakeholders. Further research should examine the model from the perceptions of other stakeholders (e.g., customers, employees, and suppliers), using a longitudinal research design and exploring other contexts

    The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain

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    This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oil is related to the olive production, whereas less than 0.5% is due to the other components such as bottle, cap and label. Over the studied period, the green water footprint in absolute terms of Spanish olive oil production represents about 72% in rainfed systems and just 12% in irrigated olive orchards. Blue and grey water footprints represent 6% and 10% of the national water footprint, respectively. It is shown that olive production is concentrated in regions with the smallest water footprint per unit of product. However, the increase of groundwater consumption in the main olive producing region (Andalusia), from 98 to 378 Mm3 between 1997 and 2008, has added significant pressure in the upstream Guadalquivir basin. This raises questions about the sustainability of irrigated olive orchards for export from the region. Finally, the virtual water related to olive oil exports illustrate the importance of green water footprint of rainfed olives amounting to about 77% of the total virtual water exports

    An Assessment of the Global Soybean Industry: An Application of Stochastic Equilibrium Displacement Model

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    This study uses stochastic equilibrium displacement model (SEDM) to investigate the impact on the soybean and its joint products (soymeal and soyoil) sectors of different countries and regions from transportation cost reduction in Brazil incorporating assumptions of decrease in the U.S. loan deficiency payment.International Trade, Loan Deficiency Payment, Soybean, Soybean Joint Products, Stochastic Equilibrium Displacement Model, Transportation Costs, International Relations/Trade,

    Consumer populations and nutritional transition in Spain in the 20th century: A methodology for their reconstruction

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    One feature of the modern nutrition transition is the growing consumption of animal proteins. The most common approach in the quantitative analysis of this change used to be the study of averages of food consumption. But this kind of analysis seems to be incomplete without the knowledge of the number of consumers. Data about consumers are not usually published in historical statistics. This article introduces a methodological approach for reconstructing consumer populations. This methodology is based on some assumptions about the diffusion process of foodstuffs and the modeling of consumption patterns with a log-normal distribution. This estimating process is illustrated with the specific case of milk consumption in Spain between 1925 and 1981. These results fit quite well with other data and indirect sources available showing that this dietary change was a slow and late process. The reconstruction of consumer population could shed a new light in the study of nutritional transitions.

    Economic development in Spain, 1850-1936

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    Indicators of the good health of Spanish economic history include the growing number of publications in English, the proliferation in the number of academic journals within Spain, and the fact that the 1998 International Economic History Congress is to be held in Seville. It is not possible to provide here a general note on all aspects of recent research, but this essay offers a critical examination of the major arguments advanced for the slow growth in the Spanish economy over the century or so before the civil war of 1936-9. The period after 1936 has been excluded because, although many of the obstacles to development remained until the 1960s, three excellent surveys of the literature have recently been published.' Where possible, English versions of works are cited, and the essay lists only those Spanish publications which are likely to be relatively easily obtainable. After considering recent estimates of economic growth and development, the survey tries to explain the slow change by looking at three areas: agriculture, industry, and the role of the state.Publicad
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