188,344 research outputs found

    Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review

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    .The increasing concern of consumers about food quality and safety and their rejection of chemical additives has promoted the breakthrough of the biopreservation field and the development of studies on the use of beneficial bacteria and their metabolites as potential natural antimicrobials for shelf life extension and enhanced food safety. Control of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products represents a serious challenge for the food industry which can be addressed through the intelligent use of bio-compounds or biopreservatives. This article aims to systematically review the available knowledge about biological strategies based on the use of lactic acid bacteria to control the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms in different meat products. The outcome of the literature search evidenced the potential of several strains of lactic acid bacteria and their purified or semi-purified antimicrobial metabolites as biopreservatives in meat products for achieving longer shelf life or inhibiting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, especially when combined with other technologies to achieve a synergistic effect.S

    What is the importance of sperm subpopulations?

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    .The study of sperm subpopulations spans three decades. The origin, meaning, and practical significance, however, are less clear. Current technology for assessing sperm morphology (CASA-Morph) and motility (CASA-Mot) has enabled the accurate evaluation of these features, and there are many options for data classification. Subpopulations could occur as a result of the stage of development of each spermatozoon in the subpopulation. Spermatogenesis might contribute to the production of these subpopulations. Insights from evolutionary biology and recent molecular research are indicative of the diversity among male gametes that could occur from unequal sharing of transcripts and other elements through cytoplasmic bridges between spermatids. Sperm cohorts exiting the gonads would contain different RNA and protein contents, affecting the spermatozoon physiology and associations with the surrounding environmental milieu. Subsequently, these differences could affect how spermatozoa interact with the environmental milieu (maturation, mixing with seminal plasma, and interacting with the environmental milieu, or female genital tract and female gamete). The emergence of sperm subpopulations as an outcome of evolution, related to the reproductive strategies of the species, genital tract structures, and copulatory and fertilization processes. This kind of approach in determining the importance of sperm subpopulations in fertilization capacity should have a practical impact for conducting reproductive technologies, inspiring and enabling new ways for the more efficient use of spermatozoa in the medical, animal breeding, and conservation fields. This manuscript is a contribution to the Special Issue in memory of Dr. Duane GarnerS

    A new index of resilience applicable to external pulse-disturbances that considers the recovery of communities in the short term

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    .Resilience is a key concept in the study of the recovery of ecosystems affected by disturbances. Currently, there are numerous indices to measure resilience, but many of them do not show the accuracy of the resilience value or the behaviour of ecological parameters in the face of disturbances. New approaches and technologies enable large amounts of information to be obtained, facilitating the proposal of new resilience indices that work consistently and intuitively for a wide variety of ecological response variables under different scenarios after pulse-disturbances. In this study, we propose and verify a new resilience index, comparing its performance with others previously published. We validated the performance of the new index using real data based on field measurements of changes in soil bacterial OTUs diversity and abundance after a wildfire. The new resilience index provided an automatic and robust functional classification of the behaviour of ecosystems after disturbances, supported by a bootstrap analysis. We identified 5 scenarios of ecosystem resilience performance according to their behaviour after a pulse-disturbance: resilient, non-resilient, recovering, rebound, and continuing.S

    Interactive Sonic Environments: Sonic artwork via gameplay experience

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of video-game technology in the design and implementation of interactive sonic centric artworks, the purpose of which is to create and contribute to the discourse and understanding of its effectiveness in electro-acoustic composition highlighting the creative process. Key research questions include: How can the language of electro-acoustic music be placed in a new framework derived from videogame aesthetics and technology? What new creative processes need to be considered when using this medium? Moreover, what aspects of 'play' should be considered when designing the systems? The findings of this study assert that composers and sonic art practitioners need little or no coding knowledge to create exciting applications and the myriad of options available to the composer when using video-game technology is limited only by imagination. Through a cyclic process of planning, building, testing and playing these applications the project revealed advantages and unique sonic opportunities in comparison to other sonic art installations. A portfolio of selected original compositions, both fixed and open are presented by the author to complement this study. The commentary serves to place the work in context with other practitioners in the field and to provide compositional approaches that have been taken

    The applied psychology of addictive orientations : studies in a 12-step treatment context.

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    The clinical data for the studies was collected at The PROMIS Recovery Centre, a Minnesota Model treatmentc entre for addictions,w hich encouragesth e membership and use of the 12 step Anonymous Fellowships, and is abstinence based. The area of addiction is contextualised in a review chapter which focuses on research relating to the phenomenon of cross addiction. A study examining the concept of "addictive orientations" in male and female addicts is described, which develops a study conductedb y StephensonM, aggi, Lefever, & Morojele (1995). This presents study found a four factor solution which appeared to be subdivisions of the previously found Hedonism and Nurturance factors. Self orientated nurturance (both food dimensions, shopping and caffeine), Other orientated nurturance (both compulsive helping dimensions and work), Sensation seeking hedonism (Drugs, prescription drugs, nicotine and marginally alcohol), and Power related hedonism (Both relationship dimensions, sex and gambling. This concept of "addictive orientations" is further explored in a non-clinical population, where again a four factor solution was found, very similar to that in the clinical population. This was thought to indicate that in terms of addictive orientation a pattern already exists in this non-clinical population and that consideration should be given to why this is the case. These orientations are examined in terms of gender differences. It is suggested that the differences between genders reflect power-related role relationships between the sexes. In order to further elaborate the significance and meaning behind these orientations, the next two chapters look at the contribution of personality variables and how addictive orientations relate to psychiatric symptomatology. Personality variables were differentially, and to a considerable extent predictably involved with the four factors for both males and females.Conscientiousness as positively associated with "Other orientated Nurturance" and negatively associated with "Sensation seeking hedonism" (particularly for men). Neuroticism had a particularly strong association with the "Self orientated Nurturance" factor in the female population. More than twice the symptomatology variance was explained by the factor scores for females than it was for males. The most important factorial predictors for psychiatric symptomatology were the "Power related hedonism" factor for males, and "Self oriented nurturance" for females. The results are discussed from theoretical and treatment perspectives

    Enabling sustainable plant-forward transition: European consumer attitudes and intention to buy hybrid products

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    Although recommendations for a transition towards more plant-forward diets have been proposed and despite consumers reporting willingness to reduce meat consumption, consumer behaviour is frequently less environmentally sustainable than recommended. This calls for simpler strategies that may lead to a more optimistic view on both supply and demand side by using less rigid and more flexible approaches, such as hybrid products, combining meat and plant-based ingredients. Against this milieu, present study examines for the first-time in a cross-cultural context (Denmark, Spain, UK) and on a large consumer sample (N = 2766), attitudes and intention to buy hybrid products, while taking into account consumers individual traits related to meat attachment, health consciousness and environmental self-identity. Results show that hybrid products could be a crucial driver for enabling a successful plant-forward transition, as the meat element in these products, together with consumers’ affinity and pleasure-seeking attitudes towards meat, would facilitate consumers’ acceptance of more sustainable alternatives. Indeed, our results show that sensory perceptions play a major role in mediating the effect of consumers’ attitudes on intention to buy hybrid products. Conversely, consumers’ environmental self-identity and health consciousness have minimal to no effect on consumers’ attitudes towards hybrid products. Thus, the results of our study support the value of strategies centring on bringing the best of two worlds: the pleasurable sensory characteristics of the meat realm, and the healthiness and sustainability benefits of the plant realm. In this sense, hybrid products could be an elegant initial approach adopted by practitioners and supported by policy makers to enable a more nuanced transition from fully meat-based to plant-forward diets

    Prevalence, quantification and antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry preparations

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    .A total of 100 samples of fresh poultry preparations were obtained from 10 retail outlets in North-Western Spain. Listeria spp. were found in 73 samples. Isolates were identified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as Listeria monocytogenes (56 samples), Listeria innocua (32), Listeria grayi (3), Listeria seeligeri (1) and Listeria spp. (6). In 24 samples, several different Listeria species were found. The loads of L. monocytogenes detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) in the 56 positive samples ranged from 0.05) on concentrations of L. monocytogenes. A total of 163 L. monocytogenes isolates were tested (disc diffusion) against 15 antimicrobials of clinical significance. The average number of resistances per isolate was 5.83 ± 1.64. All strains showed resistance to multiple antimicrobials (between 4 and 11). In all, 80 isolates (49.1%) showed a multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype, and two isolates (1.2%) showed an extensively drugresistant (XDR) phenotype. More than 50.0% of isolates showed resistance or reduced susceptibility to oxacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefepime, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin or nitrofurantoin. This is a cause for concern because these substances are among the antibiotics used to treat human listeriosis, with rifampicin and fluoroquinolones frequently being used. The results from this research work show that poultry preparations are a potential major source of resistant L. monocytogenes strains, since these are present in some samples at high concentrations. This highlights the pressing need to handle poultry preparations correctly, so as to ensure they are sufficiently cooked and to avoid cross-contamination events.S

    Higher education, regional growth and cohesion: insights from the Spanish case

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    Este artículo pretende analizar la relación entre el crecimiento económico regional y el desarrollo de la educación superior. Para ello se abordará desde una perspectiva macroeconómica, utilizando un panel de datos relativos al conjunto de las comunidades autónomas españolas para el periodo comprendido entre 1985 y 2016. El crecimiento económico regional se mide en términos de Producto Interior Bruto per cápita, mientras que el crecimiento de la educación superior se mide en términos de un indicador alternativo al utilizado tradicionalmente en la literatura: alumnos matriculados en cada año académico. El principal resultado es la estimación de un efecto positivo de la educación superior en el crecimiento regional. Además, dado que este efecto es más intenso en las regiones menos desarrolladas económicamente, se puede concluir que la educación superior juega un efecto positivo en la cohesión económica y social entre regiones, reduciendo las diferencias económicas y de bienestar. Por otra parte, la reducida movilidad interna de la mano de obra en España tiene su reflejo en un efecto no significativo entre regiones. Finalmente, el análisis de los efectos composición se muestra relevantes dado que se pueden observar efectos de distinta intensidad en función del campo de conocimiento en el que se ha formado el trabajador

    Relaciones intergeneracionales: beneficios, satisfacción y limitaciones derivadas de la práctica de actividades presenciales y virtuales = Intergenerational relationships: benefits, satisfaction, and limitations derived from the practice of face-to-face and virtual activities

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    421 p.Introducción Durante las últimas décadas, el aislamiento social y la soledad entre los adultos mayores ha conducido a un mayor interés en el estudio de las relaciones intergeneracionales. Los programas intergeneracionales constituyen una gran oportunidad para que los adultos mayores conecten con personas de otras generaciones. Numerosos estudios han descrito los efectos beneficiosos de estos programas, mejorando la salud mental y física de las personas mayores y contribuyendo a una mejor formación académica y habilidades sociales en los niños. Las tecnologías digitales se han vuelto necesarias para realizar las actividades diarias de personas de todas las edades, incluyendo cada vez más a las personas mayores. Las TICs y las herramientas virtuales pueden ofrecer una gran oportunidad para que los adultos mayores conecten con personas de otras generaciones, lo que producirá beneficios en su calidad de vida y bienestar. Preguntas de investigación ¿Las intervenciones de base empírica empleadas para la evaluación de los efectos de las interacciones intergeneracionales cumplen los indicadores IBE y en ello influye el tipo de modalidad presencial, virtual o combinada? ¿La realización de actividades intergeneracionales de tipo presencial tiene un impacto positivo, en relación a sus beneficios, satisfacción y limitaciones, en todas las personas involucradas? ¿La realización de actividades intergeneracionales mediante el uso de herramientas virtuales tiene un impacto positivo, en relación a sus beneficios, satisfacción y limitaciones, en todas las personas involucradas? Objetivos Identificar los elementos relevantes que aseguran la eficacia de las intervenciones intergeneracionales tanto presenciales como virtuales. Evaluar los beneficios, la satisfacción y las limitaciones de las interacciones intergeneracionales derivadas de la realización de actividades presenciales. Analizar los beneficios, la satisfacción y las limitaciones de las interacciones intergeneracionales derivadas del uso de herramientas virtuales. Resultados Revisión sistemática (Artículo IV): Los análisis descriptivos y multivariados realizados mostraron que los programas con mayor número de controles IBE tienen mayor eficacia, independientemente del modo de intervención empleado, y que esta eficacia también está modulada por otras variables como la discapacidad de los participantes, su nivel de alfabetización o su pertenencia a una institución. Análisis de los beneficios, la satisfacción y las limitaciones derivadas de la realización de actividades intergeneracionales presenciales (Artículo VIII): El análisis de las variables sociodemográficas reveló que personas de 40 años o más, con autonomía personal, solteras o casadas, convivientes con su pareja y/u otro familiar y no jubilados realizaban actividades presenciales con personas de otra generación con una frecuencia significativamente mayor que el resto de grupos para cada variable. La mayoría de los encuestados que participaron en actividades intergeneracionales presenciales indicaron beneficios en su salud física y mental, estado de ánimo, relaciones, autodeterminación, participación social y educación académica. La mayoría de los participantes se mostraron bastante o muy satisfechos con la persona con la que realizaban este tipo de actividades, especialmente si esta persona era un amigo o un familiar cercano. Excepto los abuelos, las personas que participaron en actividades intergeneracionales presenciales y que no tenían limitaciones o discapacidades fueron las que indicaron los participantes con mayor frecuencia. Análisis de los beneficios, la satisfacción y las limitaciones derivadas de la realización de actividades intergeneracionales virtuales (Artículo IX): El análisis de los datos sociodemográficos de los encuestados mostró asociaciones significativas entre el uso de redes sociales y todas las variables analizadas, excepto su nivel de autonomía. La mayoría de los participantes que participaron en actividades intergeneracionales virtuales refirieron beneficios en su participación social, relaciones, estado de ánimo, salud mental y educación académica. Además, la mayoría de los participantes estaban bastante o muy satisfechos con la persona con la que utilizaron las herramientas virtuales, especialmente si esta persona era un amigo, su pareja, un hermano, otro familiar o un colega. Excepto los abuelos, las personas que participaron en actividades intergeneracionales virtuales y que no tenían limitaciones o discapacidades fueron las indicadas por los participantes más frecuentemente. Conclusiones El uso de herramientas digitales ofrece una gran oportunidad para el desarrollo de programas intergeneracionales con beneficios tanto para los niños y jóvenes como para los adultos mayores. Sin embargo, se ha identificado la necesidad de incrementar el número de intervenciones de tipo virtual que puedan mejorar la eficacia de las actividades realizadas y, al mismo tiempo, asegurar que se cumplan los indicadores de base empírica. Las interacciones intergeneracionales, tanto de tipo presencial como aquellas basadas en el uso de herramientas virtuales, pueden contribuir a mejorar la salud tanto física como mental, las habilidades y las relaciones sociales de todas las personas involucradas
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