2,497 research outputs found

    Fabrication and characterization of coated ceramic membranes from natural sources for water treatment applications

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    This study aimed to fabricate ceramic membranes for water treatment applications using natural and costeffective materials. This is the first-time white clay, Arabic gum, and marble powder were used in ceramic membranes. Two ceramic membranes were fabricated using an extrusion process: substrate A and substrate B. The JMP software (Version 15) was used to obtain the optimal recipes for the two substrates, which were white clay (62.7 %), silica flour (32.3 %), and Arabic gum (5 %) for substrate A and white clay (63 %), silica flour (26.8 %), and marble powder (10.2 %) for substrate B. Additionally, the effect of waste glass in the coating layer on the separation rate was examined. The ceramic membranes were analysed using various techniques, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), laser diffraction particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and a universal testing machine. The morphologies of the membranes were observed using scan electron microscopy (SEM), and their chemical resistances were evaluated. The flux across the substrates was measured using a crossflow filtration system, and it was found that substrate B had a higher flux (116 L/m2 h) than substrate A (77 L/m2 h). This was probably due to its higher porosity (34 %) compared to substrate A (29 %). Substrate A, with a coating layer (CO-2), exhibited the highest removal efficiency of approximately 99.2 % for synthetic feed water composed of tap water and bentonite clay, with an average particle size of 1.1 μm and turbidity of 13 ± 0.2 NTU. The costs of ceramic membranes A and B were estimated to be approximately 51 and 47 USD/m2 , respectively. Their cost-effectiveness results from the use of low-cost materials that do not require high sintering temperatures. This study demonstrates that these ceramic membranes are not only affordable but also possess desirable properties for water treatment applications

    Evaluation of protein sources in snail (Helix aspersa MĂĽller) diets on the antioxidant bioactivity of peptides in meat and slime

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    Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods.Objective: This work evaluates the effect of a dietary supply of amaranth, oats and lentils as a protein source on anthropometric measurements, the chemical composition in meat, as well as antioxidant activity in meat peptides and secretion of the snail (Helix aspersa Múller). Design/methodology/approach: We worked with three groups of snails of 36 individuals and a control group fed with the same diet varying the protein source: amaranth, oats and lentils. A sample was taken every seven days and the shell's weight, width and length were measured. Five individuals from each group were sacrificed and the meat from which they were sacrificed was extracted: weight, moisture and protein. The hydrolysis soluble proteins in meat and slime were obtained and the antioxidant activity was measured using the reducing radicals DPPH• and ABTS•. Results: Snail meat was obtained with an increase of more than double in weight when 10% of Am was supplied as a protein source. Likewise, the dimensions of the shell will increase by 5%-11%. In FSM, it was obtained up to 79.8% moisture, 11.2% protein, 1.2% fat and 2.5% collagen. When obtaining snail meat flour, it was reduced to 12±1.9% humidity with up to 24.53 g/g of soluble protein. When hydrolyzing the proteins, it was observed that the peptides obtained presented the IC50 of DPPH scavenging activity of 21.58±2.7, 5.45± 1.8, 12.69±1.7 and IC50 of ABTS removal activity 8.86±0.9, 1.62±0.04, 10.84±1.0, for HFSM, HSMF and SS samples, respectively. Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out other studies on the functionality of snail meat proteins and thus propose their implementation in food formulations to maximize their commercialization. Findings/conclusions: Feeding snails with amaranth helps to increase the quality of protein in fresh meat and flour. Likewise, requests for soluble proteins from beef, flour and secretion are alternatives for preparing functional foods

    Pertumbuhan Berbagai Jenis Bahan Perbanyakan Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) pada Beberapa Komposisi Media Tanam

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    Sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia) merupakan tanaman berkhasiat obat dari famili malvaceae yang masih jarang dibudidayakan. Pengambilan sidaguri dari alam untuk memenuhi kebutuhan industri obat secara terus menerus mengancam keberadaan sidaguri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis bahan perbanyakan, komposisi media tanam, dan interaksi keduanya untuk menghasilkan bibit dengan pertumbuhan optimal dan efisien. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak (RKLT) faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Terdapat tiga perlakuan jenis bahan perbanyakan yaitu benih, setek batang, dan setek pucuk serta empat komposisi media tanam yaitu tanah, tanah + kompos, tanah + kompos + arang sekam, dan tanah + kompos + pasir (1:1 v/v). Setiap satuan percobaan terdapat 10 tanaman sehingga total terdapat 360 tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perlakuan yang menghasilkan bibit paling baik berdasarkan pengaruh jenis bahan perbanyakan, namun komposisi media tanam dan interaksi kedua faktor tidak menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata. Bahan perbanyakan yang baik digunakan sebagai bahan perbanyak sidaguri yaitu setek batang yang menunjukkan hasil paling baik pada daya tumbuh (56.67%), tinggi tanaman (29.4 cm), dan jumlah cabang (3.5) yang dicapai pada umur 8 MST. Kata kunci: bahan perbanyakan, diferensiasi sel, malvaceace, media tana

    A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS: RESEARCH OF URBAN FARMING IN INDONESIA PERIOD 1991-2023

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    This research is related to urban farming as a major variable in this publication. The aim of this research is to investigate the profile of original scientific articles along with reviews on the topic of urban farming in Indonesia in the period 1991-2023 using bibliometric analysis. Journals related to urban farming in Indonesia published between 1991-2023 are taken from Scopus. The records analyzed and taken from the research material as characteristic of the subsequent quotation containing the distribution of the author's name, year of publication, principal author institution, publisher processed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and VOSviewer v.1.61 are used to create bibliometric diagrams. A total of 81 journals published in Scopus were written by 160 identified authors. The number of published articles continued to increase from 1991 to 2023, with the majority of articles written in English. The most cited article is Aquaculture Research with a 10-year quotation. Visualization analysis based on the accuracy of connected words in titles and abstracts has revealed several groups of research. This research contributes to providing a systematic overview of the productivity and visibility of research projects focused on urban farming in Indonesia, which is expected to be used to organize and prioritize future research.

    Activity Of A Gel Combination Of Pandan Wangi (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) and Snail Mucus (Achatina Fulica) On Burn Wounds In Male White Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) Wistar Strains

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    Burns are damage to skin tissue due to thermal trauma. This research aimed to determine the combination of Pandan Wangi and snail mucus used to treat burns and determine the optimal formula. The research was pure with only a randomized control design, including F1 being given placebo gel, F1 (10%:10%), F2 (10%:15%), F3 (10%:20%), and F4 being given bioplacenton. The gel evaluation and tested for the ability to treat burns on rats for about 21 days. The combination gel made a homogenous formulation with a pH 6 based on pH paper while pH meter results were around 6,27- 6,35 cm, a spread of 5,70-6,60 cm, and a viscosity value of 5.600-7.600 cps that was stable for 3 weeks of storage. This evaluation’s findings are consistent with the provisions of National Standard Indonesia (SNI). The activity optimal combination gel obtained by examining the average diameter and discoloration were 10%:20% (0,5560 cm), 10%:15% (0,8120 cm), 10%:10% (0,9860 cm), bioplacenton (0,4780 cm), and placebo gel (1,5340 cm). On the 21st day, the skin condition of K1, K2, K3, and K4 was normal, however, K0 was not normal. The statistical analysis data is normally distributed (p≥0,05), homogeneous (p≥0,05), and a significant difference in all groups (p0,05). According to the experiment, three gel combination of Pandan Wangi and snail mucus have an effect on healing burns but 10%:20% (F3) could accelerate the optimal healing process

    Evaluating different diets on the growth performance of mud crab (Scylla serrata)

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    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of natural feeds for the sustainable grow-out aquaculture of mud crabs as an alternative to commercially available mud crab feeds. This study employed a completely randomized design that includes five  feed  treatments including trash fish, African land snail, horn snail, edible frog, and mud snail. There were three replicates for each treatment with three cages each located in a concrete tank with an area of 12m2. Each cage contained one lean crab. The crabs were fed twice a day, at 7 a.m. and 8 p.m. with an amount adjusted to 7% of the crab's body weight. After the first 21 days, all the crabs were harvested by draining out the tank water and the pincers of the crab were tied with a string to enable handling. The results showed that the highest growth performance in weight gain and condition factor was seen in African land snail feed with a feed conversion ratio of 1.38, indicating a high-quality feed. It also showed an impressive ROI of 96.8% which can be confirmed that this kind of feed might be a viable mud crab feed for both commercial scale and industry

    Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method Indicates Absence of Antimicrobial Properties in Ariolimax columbianus Mucus

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    Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly accelerating epidemic demanding novel approaches. Gastropod mucus has been shown to possess antimicrobial properties and could potentially be used as an ingredient in antibiotic development. However, whether the mucus of Ariolimax columbianus, the banana slug, also displays antimicrobial properties is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the mucus of A. columbianus is resistant to Escherichia coli (E.coli), Streptococcus aureus (S.aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae), three medically relevant strains of bacteria. Specimens were collected from a coniferous forest and isolated for downstream mucus extraction. We spread uniform concentrations of our bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar plates and subjected them to a Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test by treating them with either discs dipped in mucus or discs dipped in mucus and HBSS. Zones of inhibition did not form on the plates after subjecting the bacteria to either treatment. While this study was limited to a few taxa and one experimental approach, our study suggests that gastropod mucus may not have a generalized scope of antimicrobial activity. Rather, antimicrobial activity of mucus may be more specific to taxa encountered by the slugs in their redwood forest habitat. Our results can be used to refine mucus extraction methods for A. columbianus in future studies that seek to investigate the potential of mucus for biotechnological applications

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    Glucosamines belong to the group of amino sugars and act as a precursor for the biosynthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids in the body. The chemical, biological, and fermented extraction of glucosamine has not yet yielded optimal results. Pressurized hydrolysis treatment is needed to increase the yield of glucosamine. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pressurized acid glucosamine extract from vannamei shrimp shell. The characteristics observed included the chemical composition, yield, degree of deacetylation, spectrum of functional groups, heavy metal contamination, and appearance. The chemical and heavy metal composition indicate the quality of shrimp shell are of standard allowed. Chitosan had a moisture content of 4.62%, ash content of 0.31%, protein content of 3.03%, deacetylation degree of 78.44%, viscosity of 222 cPs, flaky appearance, brownish-white color, and odorless. Pressurized acid extraction yielded white brownish glucosamine powder. The highest glucosamine yield was found in the 5% HCl acid extraction treatment at a pressure of 0.45 atm. The best glucosamine was obtained from the combined treatment of acid and pressure with the yield and degree of deacetylation that complied with the quality requirements of glucosamine.Glukosamin merupakan suatu senyawa yang termasuk ke dalam gula amino dan berperan sebagai prekursor biosintesis protein glikosilat dan lipid di dalam tubuh. Ekstraksi glukosamin secara kimia, biologi, dan fermentasi, belum mendapatkan hasil yang optimal. Perlakuan hidrolisis bertekanan diperlukan untuk meningkatkan hasil dalam pembuatan glukosamin. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan karakteristik glukosamin dari kitosan cangkang udang vaname yang diekstrak menggunakan perlakuan asam dengan tekanan. Kitosan cangkang udang vanamei diekstraksi menggunakan HCl 5% lalu diberi perlakuan dengan tekanan 0,45 atm dan tanpa tekanan pada suhu ±120°C . Karakteristik yang diamati meliputi komposisi kimia, rendemen, derajat deasetilasi, spektrum gugus fungsi, dan ketampakan. Cangkang udang yang digunakan memiliki kadar air (25,49±0,34%), abu (14,05±0,26%), dan protein (20,63±0,08%) . Kitosan udang vanamei memiliki kadar air (4,62%), abu (0,31%), protein (3,03%), derajat deasetilasi yaitu 78,44%, viskositas 222 cP, dan ketampakan berbentuk serpihan, warna putih kecokelatan dan tidak berbau. Glukosamin udang vanamei memiliki ketampakan berbentuk serbuk, dan warna putih kecokelatan. Persentase rendemen tertinggi pada glukosamin dengan tekanan 0,45 atm, yaitu 78,22%. Perlakuan pemberian tekanan dan tanpa tekanan pada ekstraksi glukosamin berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen, derajat deasetilasi, dan spektrum gugus fungsi glukosamin. Glukosamin terbaik diperoleh dari perlakuan ekstraksi kombinasi konsentrasi asam dan tekanan dengan hasil rendemen dan derajat deasetilasi yang telah sesuai dengan syarat mutu glukosamin

    SUNSERUM WAJAH SARI RIMPANG TEMU GIRING (Curcuma heyneana) TERFERMENTASI Lactobacillus bulgaricus

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    Long-term sun exposure can cause a variety of skin disorders, including sunburn and skin cancer. Sunscreen products containing antioxidants can help to prevent unwanted effects and protect the skin from free radicals. The rhizome of sleigh meeting (Curcuma heyneana) has chemicals 1,4- napthalenedione, 2-hydroxy-3-(-2-methyl-prophenyl), or other names Norlapachol, which has the potential as a suya screen and has strong antioxidant action. The study's goal is to see if the juice of fermented rhizome of Lactobacillus bulgaricus can be created as a sun serum face preparation, and then compare the value of antioxidant activity and sunscreen. Making fresh juice, fermented juice, phytochemical screening, preparation making, preparation evaluation, and SPF test are all part of the procedure. creating fresh juice, fermented juice, phytochemical screening, creating preparations, evaluating preparations, in-vitro SPF testing using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and antioxidant testing with the DPPH (2,2-Dyphenyl-1- Pycrylhydrazyl) method are all part of the approach. SPF F1 test value: 27.40 (ultra protected); F2: 27.84 (ultra protected); antioxidant activity test results: the IC50 value of fresh juice is 15.92 ppm (very strong); fermented juice is 11.02 ppm (very strong); and all preparation evaluations met the requirements according to the test standards. According to the findings, fresh and fermented ginger rhizome juice can be prepared as a sunscreen and antioxidant-rich facial sun serum preparation
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