21,031 research outputs found

    Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators

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    We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.Comment: 21 p

    Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

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    It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumours. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumours with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and hence is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and hence it has been frequently speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realise its inherent enormous potential.Comment: 40 pages, 24 figure

    Electron-Cloud Effects in past and future machines - walk through 50 years of Electron-Cloud studies

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    Past electron-cloud (e-cloud) observations, studies and mitigation techniques are quickly reviewed along with some ongoing code developments, the preceding ECLOUD workshops, recent contacts with the spacecraft community, the important role of Francesco Ruggiero, and a few current electron-cloud topics discussed at ECLOUD12 in La Biodola.Comment: 9 pages, contribution to the Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects: ECLOUD'12; 5-9 Jun 2012, La Biodola, Isola d'Elba, Ital

    Technologies for Delivery of Proton and Ion Beams for Radiotherapy

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    Recent developments for the delivery of proton and ion beam therapy have been significant, and a number of technological solutions now exist for the creation and utilisation of these particles for the treatment of cancer. In this paper we review the historical development of particle accelerators used for external beam radiotherapy and discuss the more recent progress towards more capable and cost-effective sources of particles.Comment: 53 pages, 13 figures. Submitted to International Journal of Modern Physics

    Characterization of self-injected electron beams from LWFA experiments at SPARC_LAB

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    The plasma-based acceleration is an encouraging technique to overcome the limits of the accelerating gradient in the conventional RF acceleration. A plasma accelerator is able to provide accelerating fields up to hundreds of GeV/mGeV/m, paving the way to accelerate particles to several MeV over a short distance (below the millimetre range). Here the characteristics of preliminary electron beams obtained with the self-injection mechanism produced with the FLAME high-power laser at the SPARC_LAB test facility are shown. In detail, with an energy laser on focus of 1.5 J1.5\ J and a pulse temporal length (FWHM) of 40 fs40\ fs, we obtained an electron plasma density due to laser ionization of about 6×1018 cm−36 \times 10^{18}\ cm^{-3}, electron energy up to 350 MeV350\ MeV and beam charge in the range (50−100) pC(50 - 100)\ pC.Comment: 6 pages, 11 figures, conference EAAC201

    Perspectives of Nuclear Physics in Europe: NuPECC Long Range Plan 2010

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    The goal of this European Science Foundation Forward Look into the future of Nuclear Physics is to bring together the entire Nuclear Physics community in Europe to formulate a coherent plan of the best way to develop the field in the coming decade and beyond.<p></p> The primary aim of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution, structure and phases of strongly interacting matter, which constitutes nearly 100% of the visible matter in the universe. This is an immensely important and challenging task that requires the concerted effort of scientists working in both theory and experiment, funding agencies, politicians and the public.<p></p> Nuclear Physics projects are often “big science”, which implies large investments and long lead times. They need careful forward planning and strong support from policy makers. This Forward Look provides an excellent tool to achieve this. It represents the outcome of detailed scrutiny by Europe’s leading experts and will help focus the views of the scientific community on the most promising directions in the field and create the basis for funding agencies to provide adequate support.<p></p> The current NuPECC Long Range Plan 2010 “Perspectives of Nuclear Physics in Europe” resulted from consultation with close to 6 000 scientists and engineers over a period of approximately one year. Its detailed recommendations are presented on the following pages. For the interested public, a short summary brochure has been produced to accompany the Forward Look.<p></p&gt