38,319 research outputs found

    Machine Protection

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    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3x10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS.Comment: 23 pages, contribution to the CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course, Trondheim, Norway, 18-29 Aug 201

    Machine Protection and Operation for LHC

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    Since 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the accelerator with the highest stored energy per beam, with a record of 140 MJ at a beam energy of 4 TeV, almost a factor of 50 higher than other accelerators. With such a high stored energy, machine protection aspects set the boundary conditions for operation during all phases of the machine cycle. Only the low-intensity commissioning beams can be considered as relatively safe. This document discusses the interplay of machine operation and machine protection at the LHC, from commissioning to regular operation.Comment: 25 pages, contribution to the 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, Newport Beach, CA, USA , 5-14 Nov 201

    ATLAS upgrades for the next decades

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    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1^{-1} to 3000 fb−1^{-1} by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be kept lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next

    Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

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    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.Comment: 35 pages, contribution to the 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, Newport Beach, CA, USA , 5-14 Nov 201

    Tevatron Collider Program - Physics, Results, Future?

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    An overview of more than 25 years of the Tevatron Collider program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, near Chicago, Illinois, USA, is presented. The physics goals of the program itself, the Tevatron accelerator design characteristics and some of its achievements are described. A selected set of the past and ongoing physics analyses and measurements performed by CDF and D0 collaborations are summarized. Also, in view of the modified plans and schedule of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the future of the Tevatron program is discussed.Comment: Presented at Cracow Epiphany Conference of the First Year of the LHC, Cracow, Poland, January 1012, 201

    Superconductivity for Magnets

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    The present state of development of a series of industrial superconductors is reviewed in consideration of their future applications in high field accelerator magnets, with particular attention on the material aspect. The discussion is centred on Nb3Sn and MgB2, which are industrially available in a round wire configuration in kilometre lengths and are already envisaged for use in the LHC Upgrade (HL-LHC). The two systems Bi-2212 and R.E.123 may be used in magnets with even higher fields in future accelerators: they are briefly described.Comment: 21 pages, contribution to the CAS-CERN Accelerator School: Superconductivity for Accelerators, Erice, Italy, 24 April - 4 May 2013, edited by R. Baile

    Introduction to Machine Protection

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    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, LHC, will operate with about 3 x 1014^{14} protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This lecture will provide an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC and ESS.Comment: 20 pages, contribution to the 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, Newport Beach, CA, USA , 5-14 Nov 2014. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1601.0520

    Summary of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector Workshop

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    One of the options for an accelerator beyond the LHC is a hadron collider with higher energy. Work is going on to explore accelerator technologies that would make such a machine feasible. This workshop concentrated on the physics and detector issues associated with a hadron collider with an energy in the center of mass of the order of 100 to 200 TeV

    Considerations for an Ac Dipole for the LHC

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    Following successful experience at the BNL AGS, FNAL Tevatron, and CERN SPS, an AC Dipole will be adopted at the LHC for rapid measurements of ring optics. This paper describes some of the parameters of the AC dipole for the LHC, scaling from performance of the FNAL and BNL devices.Comment: proceedings of the 2007 Particle Accelerator Conferenc
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