20,591 research outputs found

    Testing the nomological network for the Personal Engagement Model

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    The study of employee engagement has been a key focus of management for over three decades. The academic literature on engagement has generated multiple definitions but there are two primary models of engagement: the Personal Engagement Model of Kahn (1990), and the Work Engagement Model (WEM) of Schaufeli et al., (2002). While the former is cited by most authors as the seminal work on engagement, research has tended to focus on elements of the model and most theoretical work on engagement has predominantly used the WEM to consider the topic. The purpose of this study was to test all the elements of the nomological network of the PEM to determine whether the complete model of personal engagement is viable. This was done using data from a large, complex public sector workforce. Survey questions were designed to test each element of the PEM and administered to a sample of the workforce (n = 3,103). The scales were tested and refined using confirmatory factor analysis and then the model was tested determine the structure of the nomological network. This was validated and the generalisability of the final model was tested across different work and organisational types. The results showed that the PEM is viable but there were differences from what was originally proposed by Kahn (1990). Specifically, of the three psychological conditions deemed necessary for engagement to occur, meaningfulness, safety, and availability, only meaningfulness was found to contribute to employee engagement. The model demonstrated that employees experience meaningfulness through both the nature of the work that they do and the organisation within which they do their work. Finally, the findings were replicated across employees in different work types and different organisational types. This thesis makes five contributions to the engagement paradigm. It advances engagement theory by testing the PEM and showing that it is an adequate representation of engagement. A model for testing the causal mechanism for engagement has been articulated, demonstrating that meaningfulness in work is a primary mechanism for engagement. The research has shown the key aspects of the workplace in which employees experience meaningfulness, the nature of the work that they do and the organisation within which they do it. It has demonstrated that this is consistent across organisations and the type of work. Finally, it has developed a reliable measure of the different elements of the PEM which will support future research in this area

    The Stakeholder Consultation Workshop Report: Transforming the Rules of the Game: Gendered Livability in Peri-urban Dhaka

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    Urban space is highly unequal, gendered, and divided. Urban policy and development planning often overlook the issue of food and water security for the most marginalized populations, who are often unregistered and considered as ‘temporary’ residents. In Bangladesh, the rural-urban migration of women is increasingly common. However, research on gender, food and water security in agricultural organizations often focuses on rural contexts where food is produced. To address this cross-sectoral knowledge gap, the research project titled ‘Transforming the rules of the game: Gendered livability in peri-urban Dhaka’ was implemented in 2022, funded by the CGIAR GENDER Impact platform. This study focused on understanding peri-urban food and water systems for young women garment workers in Bangladesh. At the end of the project implementation, the stakeholder consultation workshop was held on 12nd December 2022 in Dhaka with a total of 32 participants from the governments, local and international agricultural organizations, NGOs, universities, and the private sector. They brought varied expertise in areas including nutrition, food systems, environment, and urban development. After the welcome speech by Dr. Debashish Chanda from International Potato Center, the main event started with a joint presentation by Professors Dr. Sadika Haque and Dr. Bentul Mawa from Bangladesh Agricultural University. They spoke about their research findings with an emphasis on the impact of climate change and urban migration on the food governance system. They explained that the women garment factory workers’ residential areas have very limited public services in terms of waste management, water supply and medical services. Such women also have various concerns, for example, increasing food prices and their very limited options for food markets, and time constraints for household chores. The second presenter, Dr. Samina Lutfa from Bangladesh Agricultural University, showed how garment factory workers were involved in the global value chains that exploit women in the global south as cheap labour. She suggested that factory workers are easily replaceable and young women workers are exploited in the workplace. In the residential area too, they are very insecure in terms of clean water supply, food and nutrition. She also highlighted gender issues among garment workers such as women women being pressured to repay the debt of their family or in-laws. Such evidence indicates that women’s income earnings from factory jobs is not linked to women’s empowerment. Rather, it emphasizes gender inequality as patriarchal gender norms persist in both their workplace and the household. The panel discussion section began with Dr. Rudaba Khondoker from GAIN. She highlighted the importance of gender that intersects with other social identities based on which women are differentiated. Some gender-based exclusion and marginalization in urban food systems could be improved by changing regulations, lows and policies. Raising the collective voices to policymakers is therefore very important. Sharifa Parvin from FAO introduced their project “Support for Modelling, Planning and Improving Dhaka’s Food System”. 85% of Dhaka’s residents depend on wet markets and therefore it is important to engage with city corporation to improve food systems. She also expressed her interest to work on gender in urban food systems with 12 collaborating partners who are implementing the project on gender inclusion in food systems in Dhaka city. Dr. Yunus from the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies pointed out the vicious circle of child under-nutrition starting from women working in exploitative conditions, inadequate eating, and low salary. In current peri-urban factoryworking conditions women’s involvement in economic activities does not lead to their empowerment, which needs to be addressed. The session moderator, Dr. Lutful Hasan, honorable vice chancellor of Bangladesh Agricultural University, appreciated the valuable insights provided by the presenters on gender, urban food insecurity, malnutrition, hidden hunger, limited governance and livability for RMG workers. The workshop continued with group discussions and group presentations on specific topics including the need to establish a platform for gender and urban food system policy and inter-ministerial coordination, and gender sensitization in academia with gender as a compulsory subject for all. The session moderator, Dr. Wajiha Khatun from IFPRI, commented that gender plays a key role in food system transformation. She emphasized that if women lose power in the food system, there will be a negative impact on the food system. The honorable Director of IIFS thanked all the participants and ended the workshop session with concluding remarks. Participants agreed to continue to engage with this topic of gender and urban food systems through on-going research projects in Dhaka

    Exploring the Training Factors that Influence the Role of Teaching Assistants to Teach to Students With SEND in a Mainstream Classroom in England

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    With the implementation of inclusive education having become increasingly valued over the years, the training of Teaching Assistants (TAs) is now more important than ever, given that they work alongside pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (hereinafter SEND) in mainstream education classrooms. The current study explored the training factors that influence the role of TAs when it comes to teaching SEND students in mainstream classrooms in England during their one-year training period. This work aimed to increase understanding of how the training of TAs is seen to influence the development of their personal knowledge and professional skills. The study has significance for our comprehension of the connection between the TAs’ training and the quality of education in the classroom. In addition, this work investigated whether there existed a correlation between the teaching experience of TAs and their background information, such as their gender, age, grade level taught, years of teaching experience, and qualification level. A critical realist theoretical approach was adopted for this two-phased study, which involved the mixing of adaptive and grounded theories respectively. The multi-method project featured 13 case studies, each of which involved a trainee TA, his/her college tutor, and the classroom teacher who was supervising the trainee TA. The analysis was based on using semi-structured interviews, various questionnaires, and non-participant observation methods for each of these case studies during the TA’s one-year training period. The primary analysis of the research was completed by comparing the various kinds of data collected from the participants in the first and second data collection stages of each case. Further analysis involved cross-case analysis using a grounded theory approach, which made it possible to draw conclusions and put forth several core propositions. Compared with previous research, the findings of the current study reveal many implications for the training and deployment conditions of TAs, while they also challenge the prevailing approaches in many aspects, in addition to offering more diversified, enriched, and comprehensive explanations of the critical pedagogical issues

    Teen Appeal, Memphis, 09.05, 2005

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    Issue 9.2 of the Teen Appeal published by the University of Memphis Journalism Department and Commercial Appeal, Memphis, Tennessee, on October 4, 2005.https://digitalcommons.memphis.edu/speccoll-mss-teenappeal1/1058/thumbnail.jp

    Training needs in dating violence prevention among school staff in Québec, Canada

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    IntroductionSchool staff play a central role in youth sexual health education (SHE), making them critical actors in dating violence (DV) prevention initiatives. However, since most school staff do not benefit from specific training on SHE, they often report feeling challenged in their roles as sex educators. The mention of a lack of self-efficacy to prevent DV is a concern as self-efficacy is associated with the motivation of adopting new behaviors. To optimize the scope of actions used to prevent DV, the SPARX program team sought to identify priority training needs using a mixed-methods design.MethodsIn the quantitative component of this study, 108 school staff completed an online survey regarding their sense of ease, self-efficacy and barriers faced in regard to DV prevention. For the qualitative component, 15 school staff participated in an individual semi-structured interview, sharing their experiences preventing DV. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the survey data, while direct content analysis using the self-efficacy theory concept was conducted on the interviews.ResultsTo feel confident, school staff members need to learn about DV and healthy relationships and clarify their role in DV prevention. Turnkey activities, preformulated answers to adolescents’ questions, and strategies to reassure reluctant parents can strengthen staff’s sense of self-efficacy. Members of the school staff also want to feel supported and encouraged by their colleagues and school administration in their efforts to prevent DV.DiscussionThe results highlight the importance of providing training beyond acquisition of knowledge, which can improve attitudes toward DV prevention and a sense of self-efficacy used to transmit content and intervention

    Do Catholics have an external locus of evaluation? Inauthentic experiences of Catholic guilt in the pursuit of self-forgiveness

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    This two-part mixed methods study investigated emotional response to transgression and selffor-giveness in Catholic individuals in concert with locus of evaluation orientation following a hypothe-sis that Catholics may be particularly unable to find self-forgiveness in the teachings of their reli-gion. Study 1 was a qualitative semi-structured interview with a sample of 20 practicing Catholic participants. Questions focused on the emotive experiences of selfforgiveness and transgressions and the contribution that Catholic practices (prayer and reconciliation) make to the process. Data were analysed using thematic analysis which supported evidence of Catholic guilt but suggested that there may be some inauthenticity and insincerity with which penitents' approach reconciliato-ry practices. Study 2 used a sample of 239 Christian participants in groups of Catholics and Christian non-Catholics. Participants responded to two psychometric questionnaires: the Heartland Forgiveness Scale, and the Locus of Evaluation Inventory. Followed by two additional questions pertaining to self-forgiveness experiences, and one question requiring participants to prioritise types of forgiveness. The results found no difference between Catholics and non-Catholics in their response to self-forgiveness or locus of evaluation orientation. However, in non-Catholic Christians but not in Catholics, the frequency of religious practice correlated with higher total forgiveness and its subscales (including self-forgiveness), with more internal locus of evaluation, and with lower self-regard, suggesting that church attendance does not relate to the propensity for self-forgiveness in Catholic individuals


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    Through analysis of various literary texts, social media, and television, “Being Your Own Religious Protagonist: The Ramifications of Religious Guilt, Shame, and Abuse on Women’s Identities” will examine the different ways in which women experience religion as children and teenage girls, as well as how their individual and complex religious experiences affect their upbringing and eventual identities as adult women. I am particularly interested in looking at how these experiences affect not only their identities, but their decisions regarding faith and whether or not they wish to remain in the same religious organizations they grew up in. While many who suffer from religious trauma decide to cut ties with their faith entirely, there are a great deal of women who wish to stay connected to their faith, either by finding a new form of religion that brings them joy, or by attempting to make positive changes within their religious community that are beneficial to all women involved. The introduction to this work will include some of my own personal experiences with religion as a young woman growing up in the Catholic church, as well as presenting the layout of the thesis contents

    Historicising Australian Deportation of 'Suspect' and 'Undesirable' Migrant Communities

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    The overall aim of the paper is to present evidence on the factors underpinning historical deportation cases, by exploring the reasons, explanations and patterns related to deportation in Australia. The purpose is to consider whether these historical factors are antecedent to current forms of deportation occurring in Australia, and to bring to the fore potential recurring patterns. Deportation is currently conceptualised by border criminologists as a punitive tool of discipline and control, within the realm of penal powers. Some of this work on the ‘deportation regime’ asserts that certain migrants, or groups of migrants, are undesirable: their identity, (not)belonging and punishment have become inherently intertwined, and their mobility has become politicised and criminalised. This article theorises that deportation has been used in Australia, now and in the past, to expel individuals who are viewed as detrimental to the ‘health’ of the host society. The ‘deportation categories’ demonstrate that migrants’ desirability has historically been a temporary condition, shifting over time in line with the state’s requirements. They also demonstrate the historical regime of criminalisation of undesirable others enacted through Australia’s border control regime

    Norsk rÄ kumelk, en kilde til zoonotiske patogener?

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    The worldwide emerging trend of eating “natural” foods, that has not been processed, also applies for beverages. According to Norwegian legislation, all milk must be pasteurized before commercial sale but drinking milk that has not been heat-treated, is gaining increasing popularity. Scientist are warning against this trend and highlights the risk of contracting disease from milkborne microorganisms. To examine potential risks associated with drinking unpasteurized milk in Norway, milk- and environmental samples were collected from dairy farms located in south-east of Norway. The samples were analyzed for the presence of specific zoonotic pathogens; Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Cattle are known to be healthy carriers of these pathogens, and Campylobacter spp. and STEC have a low infectious dose, meaning that infection can be established by ingesting a low number of bacterial cells. L. monocytogenes causes one of the most severe foodborne zoonotic diseases, listeriosis, that has a high fatality rate. All three pathogens have caused milk borne disease outbreaks all over the world, also in Norway. During this work, we observed that the prevalence of the three examined bacteria were high in the environment at the examined farms. In addition, 7% of the milk filters were contaminated by STEC, 13% by L. monocytogenes and 4% by Campylobacter spp. Four of the STEC isolates detected were eaepositive, which is associated with the capability to cause severe human disease. One of the eae-positive STEC isolates were collected from a milk filter, which strongly indicate that Norwegian raw milk may contain potential pathogenic STEC. To further assess the possibilities of getting ill by STEC after consuming raw milk, we examined the growth of the four eae-positive STEC isolates in raw milk at different temperatures. All four isolates seemed to have ability to multiply in raw milk at 8°C, and one isolate had significant growth after 72 hours. Incubation at 6°C seemed to reduce the number of bacteria during the first 24 hours before cell death stopped. These findings highlight the importance of stable refrigerator temperatures, preferable < 4°C, for storage of raw milk. The L. monocytogenes isolates collected during this study show genetic similarities to isolates collected from urban and rural environmental locations, but different clones were predominant in agricultural environments compared to clinical and food environments. However, the results indicate that the same clone can persist in a farm over time, and that milk can be contaminated by L. monocytogenes clones present in farm environment. Despite testing small volumes (25 mL) of milk, we were able to isolate both STEC and Campylobacter spp. directly from raw milk. A proportion of 3% of the bulk tank milk and teat milk samples were contaminated by Campylobacter spp. and one STEC was isolated from bulk tank milk. L monocytogenes was not detected in bulk tank milk, nor in teat milk samples. The agricultural evolvement during the past decades have led to larger production units and new food safety challenges. Dairy cattle production in Norway is in a current transition from tie-stall housing with conventional pipeline milking systems, to modern loose housing systems with robotic milking. The occurrence of the three pathogens in this project were higher in samples collected from farms with loose housing compared to those with tiestall housing. Pasteurization of cow’s milk is a risk reducing procedure to protect consumers from microbial pathogens and in most EU countries, commercial distribution of unpasteurized milk is legally restricted. Together, the results presented in this thesis show that the animal housing may influence the level of pathogenic bacteria in the raw milk and that ingestion of Norwegian raw cow’s milk may expose consumers to pathogenic bacteria which can cause severe disease, especially in children, elderly and in persons with underlying diseases. The results also highlight the importance of storing raw milk at low temperatures between milking and consumption.Å spise mat som er mindre prosessert og mer «naturlig» er en pĂ„gĂ„ende trend i Norge og i andre deler av verden. Interessen for Ă„ drikke melk som ikke er varmebehandlet, sĂ„kalt rĂ„ melk, er ogsĂ„ Ăžkende. I Norge er det pĂ„budt Ă„ pasteurisere melk fĂžr kommersielt salg for Ă„ beskytte forbrukeren mot sykdomsfremkallende mikroorganismer. Fagfolk advarer mot Ă„ drikke rĂ„ melk, og pĂ„peker risikoen for Ă„ bli syk av patogene bakterier som kan finnes i melken. I denne avhandlingen undersĂžker vi den potensielle risikoen det medfĂžrer Ă„ drikke upasteurisert melk fra Norge. I tillegg til Ă„ samle inn tankmelk- og speneprĂžver fra melkegĂ„rder i sĂžrĂžst Norge, samlet vi ogsĂ„ miljĂžprĂžver fra de samme gĂ„rdene for Ă„ kartlegge forekomst og for Ă„ identifisere potensielle mattrygghetsrisikoer i melkeproduksjonen. Alle prĂžvene ble analysert for de zoonotiske sykdomsfremkallende bakteriene Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., og Shiga toksin-produserende Escherichia coli (STEC). Kyr kan vĂŠre friske smittebĂŠrere av disse bakteriene, som dermed kan etablere et reservoar pĂ„ gĂ„rdene. Bakteriene kan overfĂžres fra gĂ„rdsmiljĂžet til melkekjeden og dermed utfordre mattryggheten. Disse bakteriene har forĂ„rsaket melkebĂ„rne sykdomsutbrudd over hele verden, ogsĂ„ i Norge. Campylobacter spp. og STEC har lav infeksiĂžs dose, som vil si at man kan bli syk selv om man bare inntar et lavt antall bakterieceller. L. monocytogenes kan gi sykdommen listeriose, en av de mest alvorlige matbĂ„rne zoonotiske sykdommene vi har i den vestlige verden. Resultater fra denne oppgaven viser en hĂžy forekomst av de tre patogenene i gĂ„rdsmiljĂžet. I tillegg var 7% av melkefiltrene vi testet positive for STEC, 13% positive for L. monocytogenes og 4% positive for Campylobacter spp.. Fire av STEC isolatene bar genet for Intimin, eae, som er ansett som en viktig virulensfaktor som Ăžker sjansen for alvorlig sykdom. Ett av de eae-positive isolatene ble funnet i et melkefilter, noe som indikerer at norsk rĂ„ melk kan inneholde patogene STEC. For Ă„ videre vurdere risikoen for Ă„ bli syk av STEC fra rĂ„ melk undersĂžkte vi hvordan de fire eae-positive isolatene vokste i rĂ„ melk lagret ved forskjellige temperaturer. For alle isolatene Ăžkte antall bakterier etter lagring ved 8°C, og for et isolat var veksten signifikant. Etter lagring ved 6°C ble antallet bakterier redusert de fĂžrste 24 timene, deretter stoppet reduksjonen i antall bakterier. Disse resultatene viser hvor viktig det er Ă„ ha stabil lav lagringstemperatur for rĂ„ melk, helst < 4°C. L. monocytogenes isolatene som ble samlet inn fra melkegĂ„rdene viste genetiske likheter med isolater samlet inn fra urbane og rurale miljĂžer rundt omkring i Norge. Derimot var kloner som dominerte i landbruksmiljĂžet forskjellige fra kliniske isolater og isolater fra matproduksjonslokaler. Videre sĂ„ man at en klone kan persistere pĂ„ en gĂ„rd over tid og at melk kan kontamineres av L. monocytogenes kloner som er til stede i gĂ„rdsmiljĂžet. Til tross for smĂ„ testvolum av tankmelken (25 mL) fant vi bĂ„de STEC og Campylobacter spp. i melkeprĂžvene. 3% av tankmelkprĂžvene og speneprĂžvene var positive for Campylobacter spp. og ett STEC isolat ble funnet i tankmelk. L. monocytogenes ble ikke funnet direkte i melkeprĂžvene. Landbruket i Norge er i stadig utvikling der besetningene blir stĂžrre, men fĂŠrre. Melkebesetningene er midt i en overgang der tradisjonell oppstalling med melking pĂ„ bĂ„s byttes ut med lĂžsdriftssystemer og melkeroboter. Forekomsten av de tre patogenene funnet i denne studien var hĂžyere i besetningene med lĂžsdrift sammenliknet med besetningene som hadde melkekyrne oppstallet pĂ„ bĂ„s. Pasteurisering er et viktig forebyggende tiltak for Ă„ beskytte konsumenter fra mikrobielle patogener, og i de fleste EU-land er kommersielt salg av rĂ„ melk juridisk begrenset. Denne studien viser at oppstallingstype kan pĂ„virke nivĂ„ene av patogene bakterier i gĂ„rdsmiljĂžet og i rĂ„ melk. Inntak av rĂ„ melk kan eksponere forbruker for patogene bakterier som kan gi alvorlig sykdom, spesielt hos barn, eldre og personer med underliggende sykdommer. Resultatene underbygger viktigheten av Ă„ pasteurisere melk for Ă„ sikre mattryggheten, og at det er avgjĂžrende Ă„ lagre rĂ„ melk ved kontinuerlig lave temperaturer for Ă„ forebygge vekst av zoonotiske patogener