36,735 research outputs found

    Promotion of leaf degradation by earthworms under laboratory conditions

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    Organic materials were applied to leaves from organic apple trees. Then, leaves were fed to earthworms in a laboratory culture. The objective was to select materials which promote leaf degradation by earthworms and consequently reduce the inoculum pressure of apple scab in orchards. Used earthworms were fully grown and consequently no effect of the leaf treatments was found on earthworm weights. However, leaf consumption tended to be increased by addition of amino acids and beet pulp to leaves. For beet pulp, this was especially the case when the dose was increased from 1 to 5 % or when it was freshly applied

    The effects of inorganic salts on biosynthesis of pectinolytic enzymes by Aspergillus Niger

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    The paper examines effects of different inorganic salts in an apple pulp base on the production of pectinolytic enzymes with the aim of optimizing the medium for maximal enzyme production. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts was used as a nourishing base in submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus niger MK-15. The growth of the microorganism (dry weight) on different sources of nitrogen showed maximum dry weight with (NH4)2HPO4. The growth of the microorganism (dry weight) on different concentration of (NH4)2HPO4 (by 0.2% to 0.8%) provided maximal dry weight with 0.7% (NH4)2HPO4. The different inorganic salts (sources of nitrogen) on base stimulated the production of pectinolytic enzymes and enhanced by up to twofold the growth of Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation. The best source of nitrogen on base was (NH4)2HPO4 with optimal concentration of 0.7%. The obtained results represent practical importance for using apple pulp as a carbon source for production of pectinolytic enzymes in submerged fermentation.Apple pulp, fermentation, inorganic salts, pectinolytic enzymes, Aspergillus niger, Agribusiness, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, L65,

    Pengaruh Bubur Buah Jambu Mete(anacardium Occidentale L) Terhadap Angka Peroksida Minyak Kelapa

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    .This study was aimed at knowing the influence of a cashew apple fruit pulp on peroxide value in coconut oil. The concentrations of fruit pulp varied at 0, 5, 10 and 15% with storage period of coconut oil at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The results showed that the addition of cashew apple fruit pulp had a significant influence on peroxide value of coconut oil. The lowest peroxide value was yielded at a 10% cashew apple fruit addition

    Researching the possibilities of the pectolytic ensyme biosynthesis with the aspergillus species of microscopic fungi

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    For the purpose of acquiring a highly active producer of pectolytic enzymes, there was a probe of isolating 140 species of Aspergillusñ€ℱs fungi from different substrates (soils, grape malts, grapes, apples and sugar beet shreds). The isolated kinds of fungi were kept on a slant agar surface according to Chapek, with 2% of pectin. Testing was performed on the isolated layers of fungi as to the production of pectinolytic enzymes. The nourishing base used was the synthetic Chapek base with 2% pectin, 2% lactose and 0.7 % (NH4)2HPO4, and a natural base of 1% refuse apple pulp. Within 48 hours after cultivating the fungi, the filtrates were tested by the viscozimetric method to determine their entire pectolytic activity. The acquired results showed that a fungus was gained with a high pectolytic activity on a natural refuse apple pulp. It is a good employment effect. The selected sort Aspergillus sp.ÐƓÐơ-15 as a highly active producer of pectolytic enzymes could, with additional testing, be used for the industrial production of microbe enzymes with pectolytic activity (enzyme preparations).Biosynthesis, pectolytic enzymes, apple pulp, Aspergillus., Land Economics/Use, L65,

    Effect of temperature on viscosity of kokum, karonda, mango pulp and cashew apple syrup

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    The viscosity of the food products (kokum, karonda, mango pulp and cashew apple syrup) was determined at temperatures 20ÂșC, 30ÂșC, 40ÂșC, 50ÂșC and 60ÂșC and at different spindle speed such as 0.07, 0.09, 0.1, 1.1 and 17 r min-1 for mango pulp and 17, 140, 150, 160, 180 and 200 r min-1 for kokum, karonda and cashew apple syrup using Brookfield viscometer.  The kokum, karonda, mango pulp and cashew apple syrup showed shear thinning behavior and pseudo-plastic in nature (

    Growth Kinetics Parameters of Salmonella spp. in the Peel and in the Pulp of Custard Apple (Annona Squamosa)

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    AbstractThe growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, Ό; lag time, λ and maximum population, k) of Salmonella spp. on the peel and in the pulp custard apple at 10, 15, 20 and 30°C were determinated. Samples of peel and pulp of custard apple were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella spp. (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteretidis and S. Montevideo) and further stored at 10, 15, 20 and 30°C. Salmonella can survive and multiply in both, the peel and in the pulp of the custard apple. Lower temperatures retard, but do not prevent Salmonella growth

    Enhancement of degradation of fallen apple leaves

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    Leaves from organic apple trees were dipped with different organic materials and leaves were placed on the orchard floor in autumn. Leaf area and the amount of ascospores of Venturia inaequalis were measured in spring. The objective of this research was to find alternatives for urea that simulate the decomposition of apple leaves and reduces the asco-spore production. In both years urea gave an increase of the leaf degradation and a significant reduction of the number of ascospores. The antagonist Coniothyrium minitans had no significant effect on the ascospore production in both years but decreased the leaf degradation. Beet pulp showed a significant reduction of the number of spores but reduced the leaf degradation rate. Applying extra earthworms increased the degradation

    Exopolysaccharide production by the marine bacterium Alteromonas macleodii Mo169 using fruit pulp waste as the sole carbon source

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    project LA/P/0140/202019 of the Associate Laboratory Institute for Health and Bioeconomy – i4HB. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s)A sugar-rich apple pulp waste generated from fruit processing for juice production was used as the sole carbon source for the cultivation of Alteromonas macleodii Mo169, a marine bacterium known for its EPS-secreting ability. The strain efficiently utilized the glucose and fructose present in the apple pulp waste, reaching biomass and EPS production of 9.20 ± 0.61 and 3.51 ± 0.08 g L−1, respectively, in 24-hour bioreactor cultivation. Two high molecular weight (Mw) fractions (1.7 ± 0.0 and 0.74 ± 0.0 MDa) were detected in the sample recovered from the cell-free supernatant by dialysis. The compositional analysis revealed the presence of glucose (31.1 ± 0.2 mol%), arabinose (23.9 ± 0.1 mol%), mannose (17.3 ± 0.1 mol%), glucosamine (10.3 ± 0.5 mol%), galactose (8.7 ± 0.0 mol%) and galacturonic acid (8.7 ± 0.0 mol%), as well as a high content in sulphate (6.0 ± 0.5 wt%). Given the presence of a high Mw polysaccharide in the apple pulp waste, probably pectin, a fraction of the detected sugar monomers might be attributed to that polymer, which was recovered together with A. macleodii Mo169 EPS. Concomitant with EPS synthesis, there was a viscosity build-up in the cultivation broth, which developed a shear-thinning fluid behaviour not observed in the initial medium. Therefore, this study demonstrates that apple pulp waste can be efficiently converted into a novel polysaccharide by A. macleodii Mo169 in a sustainable bioprocess. Moreover, the EPS sugar and acyl composition, together with its good thickening capacity, render the biopolymer of interest for use in several applications.publishersversionpublishe

    Comparison of Cholesterol Lowering Diets: Apple, Casein Cytochrom P450 protein and Cholesterol 7α Hydroxylase Activities in Hamsters

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    Lithogenic diet, casein and apple fiber diets were fed to hamsters for 3-5 weeks. For control group, animals were fed on normal Purina chow without any supplement. The cholesterol lowering effect of lithogenic diet, casein and apple diets were compared. After dietary regimen, animals were screened for any gall stone formation. The isolated liver microsomes were separated from animals and tested for the cholesterol-7α Hydroxylase (CH) enzyme activity measurement in all three groups. The control animals did not show any gall stone formation and their CH enzyme activities were normal. The lithogenic diet showed significantly enhanced CH enzyme activities while animals fed on casein and apple diet regimen showed moderate increase in microsomal CH enzyme activity indicated cholesterol lowering in liver. In conclusion, cholesterol 7α hydroxylase may be a biomarker of cholesterol status in the body and microsomal CH enzyme may be lowered down after treatment of casein and apple diets