376 research outputs found

    LIPIcs, Volume 251, ITCS 2023, Complete Volume

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    LIPIcs, Volume 251, ITCS 2023, Complete Volum

    Indagini sul Giappone : nuove prospettive di studio e ricerca

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    [Italiano]: Questo volume costituisce una raccolta di saggi sul Giappone antico e moderno, derivati e rielaborati a partire dalle relazioni presentate al XLIII Convegno di studi sul Giappone dell’AISTUGIA – Associazione Italiana per gli Studi Giapponesi, tenutosi presso l’Università di Napoli L’Orientale dal 26 al 28 settembre 2019. Il volume offre un’accurata rappresentazione degli approcci, dei metodi, delle riflessioni dei relatori nei confronti dei rispettivi ambiti di ricerca, che spaziano dalla letteratura classica, moderna e contemporanea alle arti performative, dalla linguistica all’archeologia, dalla storia al diritto e alla politica. Spesso le tematiche di un settore si intrecciano con altre aree: l’alimentazione, ad esempio, diventa tema economico e politico, la medicina diviene oggetto di analisi storica e la letteratura si configura come strumento per l’analisi dei disagi sociali. La possibilità per i campi di ricerca di superare i confini disciplinari rigidi rappresenta uno degli aspetti significativi emersi da questo libro. / [English]: The volume includes essays on ancient and modern Japan elaborated from the papers presented at the 43rd Conference on Japanese Studies organised by AISTUGIA - the Italian Association for Japanese Studies, held at the University of Naples L’Orientale from September 26 to 28, 2019. The volume provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical perspectives of the speakers in their respective research fields, which range from classical, modern, and contemporary literature to performing arts, linguistics, archaeology, history, law, and politics. Often, the themes of one field intertwine with other areas: for example, food becomes an economic and political issue, medicine a matter of historical analysis, and literature serves as a tool for analysing social issues. The possibility for research fields to transcend rigid and artificial disciplinary boundaries is a crucial aspect highlighted in this volume

    Spice, culinary tourism, and expressions of whiteness in London, England and Nashville, Tennessee

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    Using curry in East London in the United Kingdom and hot chicken in Nashville, Tennessee as case studies, this dissertation explores how ideas of spice and heat in “ethnic” foodways become linked to conceptions of authenticity and exoticness within the context of culinary tourism. Drawing on scholarship of folk narrative, culinary tourism, critical whiteness studies, and vernacular rhetoric, among others, I investigate the ways in which the concept of spice is used rhetorically in ongoing conversations about links between “ethnic” foods and cultural appropriation, identity invention, and representation from both local and touristic perspectives. I have concentrated mainly on how specifically white racial identities are expressed through the consumption of spicy food within the context of culinary tourism, in which “ethnic” foods are a primary attraction and are often understood to be non-white. This investigation includes historical context on both curry in east London and hot chicken in Nashville, interviews with locals, culinary tourists, and tourism professionals, participant observation on culinary tours in east London, and analyses of online restaurant reviews in each location. An analysis of these collected materials reveals that consumers in both locations share a frontier orientation towards the act of consuming spicy foods that utilizes aspects of the white racial frame (Feagin 2013), and consumers use the concept of spice to signify that they have had an experience that is sufficiently or insufficiently exotic. In both locations, the concept of spice also opens up opportunities for individuals (both locals and tourists) to push back against master narratives created by tourism agencies and local governments that oversimplify their lived experiences and understandings of history

    LIPIcs, Volume 261, ICALP 2023, Complete Volume

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    LIPIcs, Volume 261, ICALP 2023, Complete Volum

    Activities of the Institute 2021

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    Development and application of methodologies and infrastructures for cancer genome analysis within Personalized Medicine

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    [eng] Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized biomedical sciences, especially in the area of cancer. It has nourished genomic research with extensive collections of sequenced genomes that are investigated to untangle the molecular bases of disease, as well as to identify potential targets for the design of new treatments. To exploit all this information, several initiatives have emerged worldwide, among which the Pan-Cancer project of the ICGC (International Cancer Genome Consortium) stands out. This project has jointly analyzed thousands of tumor genomes of different cancer types in order to elucidate the molecular bases of the origin and progression of cancer. To accomplish this task, new emerging technologies, including virtualization systems such as virtual machines or software containers, were used and had to be adapted to various computing centers. The portability of this system to the supercomputing infrastructure of the BSC (Barcelona Supercomputing Center) has been carried out during the first phase of the thesis. In parallel, other projects promote the application of genomics discoveries into the clinics. This is the case of MedPerCan, a national initiative to design a pilot project for the implementation of personalized medicine in oncology in Catalonia. In this context, we have centered our efforts on the methodological side, focusing on the detection and characterization of somatic variants in tumors. This step is a challenging action, due to the heterogeneity of the different methods, and an essential part, as it lays at the basis of all downstream analyses. On top of the methodological section of the thesis, we got into the biological interpretation of the results to study the evolution of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in a close collaboration with the group of Dr. Elías Campo from the Hospital Clínic/IDIBAPS. In the first study, we have focused on the Richter transformation (RT), a transformation of CLL into a high-grade lymphoma that leads to a very poor prognosis and with unmet clinical needs. We found that RT has greater genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic complexity than CLL. Its genome may reflect the imprint of therapies that the patients received prior to RT, indicating the presence of cells exposed to these mutagenic treatments which later expand giving rise to the clinical manifestation of the disease. Multiple NGS- based techniques, including whole-genome sequencing and single-cell DNA and RNA sequencing, among others, confirmed the pre-existence of cells with the RT characteristics years before their manifestation, up to the time of CLL diagnosis. The transcriptomic profile of RT is remarkably different from that of CLL. Of particular importance is the overexpression of the OXPHOS pathway, which could be used as a therapeutic vulnerability. Finally, in a second study, the analysis of a case of CLL in a young adult, based on whole genome and single-cell sequencing at different times of the disease, revealed that the founder clone of CLL did not present any somatic driver mutations and was characterized by germline variants in ATM, suggesting its role in the origin of the disease, and highlighting the possible contribution of germline variants or other non-genetic mechanisms in the initiation of CLL

    Coordinated Eye and Head Movements for Gaze Interaction in 3D Environments

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    Gaze is attractive for interaction, as we naturally look at objects we are interested in. As a result, gaze has received significant attention within human-computer interaction as an input modality. However, gaze has been limited to only eye movements in situations where head movements are not expected to be used or as head movements in an approximation of gaze when an eye tracker is unavailable. From these observations arise an opportunity and a challenge: we propose to consider gaze as multi-modal in line with psychology and neuroscience research to more accurately represent user movements. The natural coordination of eye and head movements could then enable the development of novel interaction techniques to further the possibilities of gaze as an input modality. However, knowledge of the eye and head coordination in 3D environments and its usage for interaction design is limited. This thesis explores eye and head coordination and their potential for interaction in 3D environments by developing interaction techniques that aim to tackle established gaze-interaction issues. We study fundamental eye, head, and body movements in virtual reality during gaze shifts. From the study results, we design interaction techniques and applications that avoid the Midas touch issue, allow expressive gaze- based interaction, and handle eye tracking accuracy issues. We ground the evaluation of our interaction techniques through empirical studies. From the techniques and study results, we define three design principles for coordinated eye and head interaction from these works that distinguish between eye- only and head-supported gaze shifts, eye-head alignment as input, and distinguishing head movements for gestures and head movements that naturally occur to support gaze. We showcase new directions for gaze-based interaction and present a new way to think about gaze by taking a more comprehensive approach to gaze interaction and showing that there is more to gaze than just the eyes

    Development and application of methodologies and infrastructures for cancer genome analysis within Personalized Medicine

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    Programa de Doctorat en Biomedicina / Tesi realitzada al Barcelona Supercomputing Cener (BSC)[eng] Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized biomedical sciences, especially in the area of cancer. It has nourished genomic research with extensive collections of sequenced genomes that are investigated to untangle the molecular bases of disease, as well as to identify potential targets for the design of new treatments. To exploit all this information, several initiatives have emerged worldwide, among which the Pan-Cancer project of the ICGC (International Cancer Genome Consortium) stands out. This project has jointly analyzed thousands of tumor genomes of different cancer types in order to elucidate the molecular bases of the origin and progression of cancer. To accomplish this task, new emerging technologies, including virtualization systems such as virtual machines or software containers, were used and had to be adapted to various computing centers. The portability of this system to the supercomputing infrastructure of the BSC (Barcelona Supercomputing Center) has been carried out during the first phase of the thesis. In parallel, other projects promote the application of genomics discoveries into the clinics. This is the case of MedPerCan, a national initiative to design a pilot project for the implementation of personalized medicine in oncology in Catalonia. In this context, we have centered our efforts on the methodological side, focusing on the detection and characterization of somatic variants in tumors. This step is a challenging action, due to the heterogeneity of the different methods, and an essential part, as it lays at the basis of all downstream analyses. On top of the methodological section of the thesis, we got into the biological interpretation of the results to study the evolution of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in a close collaboration with the group of Dr. Elías Campo from the Hospital Clínic/IDIBAPS. In the first study, we have focused on the Richter transformation (RT), a transformation of CLL into a high-grade lymphoma that leads to a very poor prognosis and with unmet clinical needs. We found that RT has greater genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic complexity than CLL. Its genome may reflect the imprint of therapies that the patients received prior to RT, indicating the presence of cells exposed to these mutagenic treatments which later expand giving rise to the clinical manifestation of the disease. Multiple NGS- based techniques, including whole-genome sequencing and single-cell DNA and RNA sequencing, among others, confirmed the pre-existence of cells with the RT characteristics years before their manifestation, up to the time of CLL diagnosis. The transcriptomic profile of RT is remarkably different from that of CLL. Of particular importance is the overexpression of the OXPHOS pathway, which could be used as a therapeutic vulnerability. Finally, in a second study, the analysis of a case of CLL in a young adult, based on whole genome and single-cell sequencing at different times of the disease, revealed that the founder clone of CLL did not present any somatic driver mutations and was characterized by germline variants in ATM, suggesting its role in the origin of the disease, and highlighting the possible contribution of germline variants or other non-genetic mechanisms in the initiation of CLL

    東北大学電気通信研究所研究活動報告 第29号(2022年度)

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