2,678,250 research outputs found

    Quality of life of adults born very preterm or very low birth weight : a systematic review

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    Aim To establish differences in health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults born term and those born very preterm (VPT) and/or with a very low birth weight (VLBW). Methods Our systematic review is preregistered under PROSPERO‐ID CRD42018084005. Studies were eligible for inclusion if their authors had stated the HRQoL of adults (18 years or older) born VPT (<32 weeks of gestation) or VLBW (<1500 g of birth weight) had been measured, if written in English, and if they reported a comparison with a control group or valid norms. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Web of Science, Embase and contacted experts in this field. Non‐response and other bias‐related problems were evaluated. Results We included 18 studies of 15 unique cohorts from 11 countries. In 11 studies, no differences in HRQoL between VPT or VLBW and term‐born adults were found; four studies found lower HRQoL in VPT/VLB adults; and evidence from three studies was inconclusive. Disability, sex and age were associated with HRQoL. Conclusion There is no conclusive evidence that HRQoL differs between term‐born adults and those born VPT or with a VLBW. The comparability of studies was restricted by differences between HRQoL measurements, age ranges at assessment and definition of disability

    Reliability and validity of three questionnaires measuring context-specific sedentary behaviour and associated correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults

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    BACKGROUND: Reliable and valid measures of total sedentary time, context-specific sedentary behaviour (SB) and its potential correlates are useful for the development of future interventions. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability and criterion validity of three newly developed questionnaires on total sedentary time, context-specific SB and its potential correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults. METHODS: Reliability and validity was tested in six different samples of Flemish (Belgium) residents. For the reliability study, 20 adolescents, 22 adults and 20 older adults filled out the age-specific SB questionnaire twice. Test-retest reliability was analysed using Kappa coefficients, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and/or percentage agreement, separately for the three age groups. For the validity study, data were retrieved from 62 adolescents, 33 adults and 33 older adults, with activPAL as criterion measure. Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots (or non-parametric approach) were used to analyse criterion validity, separately for the three age groups and for weekday, weekend day and average day. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability for self-reported total sedentary time indicated following values: ICC = 0.37-0.67 in adolescents; ICC = 0.73-0.77 in adults; ICC = 0.68-0.80 in older adults. Item-specific reliability results (e.g. context-specific SB and its potential correlates) showed good-to-excellent reliability in 67.94%, 68.90% and 66.38% of the items in adolescents, adults and older adults respectively. All items belonging to sedentary-related equipment and simultaneous SB showed good reliability. The sections of the questionnaire with lowest reliability were: context-specific SB (adolescents), potential correlates of computer use (adults) and potential correlates of motorized transport (older adults). Spearman correlations between self-reported total sedentary time and the activPAL were different for each age group: rho = 0.02-0.42 (adolescents), rho = 0.06-0.52 (adults), rho = 0.38-0.50 (older adults). Participants over-reported total sedentary time (except for weekend day in older adults) compared to the activPAL, for weekday, weekend day and average day respectively by +57.05%, +46.29%, +53.34% in adolescents; +40.40%, +19.15%, +32.89% in adults; +10.10%, -6.24%, +4.11% in older adults. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaires showed acceptable test-retest reliability and criterion validity. However, over-reporting of total SB was noticeable in adolescents and adults. Nevertheless, these questionnaires will be useful in getting context-specific information on SB

    Differences in Physical Activity and Built Environment Perceptions Between Younger and Older Adults Living in the Same Rural

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    This study examined associations between perceptions and physical activity of younger and older adults residing in the same rural/small town community. Thirty-two adults completed interviews about their community and their physical activity. Both groups perceived their neighborhood as pleasant and safe to be active. Fewer older adults perceived their neighborhood as having sidewalks. Younger adults reported being more vigorously active and they were more often utilizing private membership clubs for physical activity. Older adults utilized more public recreational facilities. These results suggest that higher perceived quality of the neighborhood built environment can enhance participation in moderate exercise in older adults

    Aquatic Hydrophilidae and Hydraenidae of Wisconsin (Coleoptera). I. Introduction, Key to Genera of Adults, and Distribution, Habitat, Life Cycle, and Identification of Species of \u3ci\u3eHelophorus\u3c/i\u3e Fabricius, \u3ci\u3eHydrochus\u3c/i\u3e Leach, and \u3ci\u3eBerosus\u3c/i\u3e Leach (Hydrophilidae), and Hydraenidae

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    The 3,920 Helophorus (Helophorinae) adults collected in Wisconsin included 16 species, two of which were new species. Helophorus orientalis and H. lacustris predominated. Three types of univoltine life cycles occurred: (1) adults overwinter in terrestrial habitats and larvae complete development in riparian habitats from early summer to early autumn, depending on the spe­cies; (2) the same as type 1, except eggs and a few adults overwinter; (3) larvae, pupae, and/or recently emerged adults overwinter and teneral adults occur in aquatic habitats in early spring. Nine species of Hydrochus (Hydrochinae) were found among 6,278 adults, with H. squamifer predominating. All had a similar univoltine life cycle in which adults overwinter in terrestrial habitats and enter aquatic sites in spring; larvae complete development in riparian habitats from late spring to late summer, depending on the species. Eight species and 5,167 adults of Berosus (HydrophIlinae: Berosini) occurred. WIth B. striatus predominating; their univoltine life cycles varied greatly among species. Some species overwinter as diapausing eggs (B. aculeatus, B. peregrinus, B. stylifer), others as adults in terrestrial habitats (B. pantherinus, B. fraternus), one as aquatic larvae (), and another as adults and larvae (B. fraternus). Only 35 Hydraenidae adults were collected; included were Hydraena angulicollis, H. pennsylvanica, and Ochthebius lineatus. A generic key to aquatic Hydropbilidae adults and keys to species of Helophorus, Hydrochus, Berosus, and Hydraenidae in Wisconsin are provided. Following each species key is information about species that includes distribution and abundance in Wisconsin, range in North America, habitat, life cycle, and notes on identification

    Do adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome differ in empathy and emotion recognition?

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    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (i) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (ii) their ability to read mental states in others’ eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions

    Supraspinal Fatigue Impedes Recovery From a Low-Intensity Sustained Contraction in Old Adults

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    This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue and contractile properties to the age difference in neuromuscular fatigue during and recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction. Cortical stimulation was used to evoke measures of voluntary activation and muscle relaxation during and after a contraction sustained at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure with elbow flexor muscles in 14 young adults (20.9 ± 3.6 yr, 7 men) and 14 old adults (71.6 ± 5.4 yr, 7 men). Old adults exhibited a longer time to task failure than the young adults (23.8 ± 9.0 vs. 11.5 ± 3.9 min, respectively, P \u3c 0.001). The time to failure was associated with initial peak rates of relaxation of muscle fibers and pressor response (P \u3c 0.05). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch; SIT) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during brief MVCs, increased during the fatiguing contraction (P \u3c 0.001) and then decreased during recovery (P = 0.02). The increase in the SIT was greater for the old adults than the young adults during the fatiguing contraction and recovery (P \u3c 0.05). Recovery of MVC torque was less for old than young adults at 10 min post-fatiguing contraction (75.1 ± 8.7 vs. 83.6 ± 7.8% of control MVC, respectively, P = 0.01) and was associated with the recovery of the SIT (r = −0.59, r2 = 0.35, P \u3c 0.001). Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and the silent period elicited during the fatiguing contraction increased less for old adults than young adults (P \u3c 0.05). The greater fatigue resistance with age during a low-intensity sustained contraction was attributable to mechanisms located within the muscle. Recovery of maximal strength after the low-intensity fatiguing contraction however, was impeded more for old adults than young because of greater supraspinal fatigue. Recovery of strength could be an important variable to consider in exercise prescription of old populations

    The Evaluation of Employment Policies for Older Adults in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia

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    Adults aged 65 and above comprise the fastest growing sector of the world’s population. In the context of increasing numbers of older adults, employment policies have become a prominent issue. Governments recognize the importance of increasing participation in working age population and providing them with equal workplace opportunities. Yet, it appears that policies raising employment rates of older adults have become a slogan that governments use for election purposes, but the reality is different. In the groundbreaking report “Working Better with Age: Poland‘ prepared by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia belong to a group of countries where the increase in the employment rate of older adults is well below the OECD average. The objective of our critical review is to evaluate current employment policies for older adults, including but not limited to healthy work conditions, age management strategies, employment services for older workers, and strategies implemented to prevent the age discrimination, in these three countries. This article also discusses the reasons for the reduction in the employment of older adults, the current barriers in employing older adults that require governments’ attention, and suggests solutions for creating an age-friendly labor market that can effectively make use of older adults’ competencies. Employment rates for people of different ages are significantly affected by government policies with regard to higher education, pensions, and retirement age
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