324,423 research outputs found

    The effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high intensity shuttle running

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    This study examined the effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices (GI) on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Seven male semi-professional soccer players (age 23 ± 2 y, body mass [BM] 73.7 ± 9.0 kg and maximal oxygen uptake 58 ± 1.0 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in two trials in a randomized cross-over design. On day 1, the subjects performed 90 min of an intermittent high-intensity shuttle running protocol [Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST)]. They then consumed a mixed high carbohydrate recovery diet (8 g/kg BM) consisting of either high (HGI) (GI: 70) or low (LGI) (GI: 35) GI foods. Twenty-two hours later (day 2) the subjects completed 75 min of the LIST (part A) followed by alternate sprinting and jogging to fatigue (part B). No differences were found between trials in time to fatigue (HGI 25.3 ± 4.0 min vs. LGI 22.9 ± 5.6 min, P = 0.649). Similarly, no differences were found between trials for sprint performance and distance covered during part B of the LIST. In conclusion, the GI of the diet during the 22 h recovery did not affect sprint and endurance performance the following day

    Peptide synthesis by recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1

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    Synthesis of the tripeptide Z-Phe-Arg-SerNH2 has been accomplished by a recombinant cysteine protease, cathepsin L1 from liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), using Z-Phe-Arg-OMe as acyl acceptor and SerNH2 as nucleophile in 0.1 M ammonium acetate pH 9.0–12.5% v/v acetonitrile at 37 °C. LC–MS detection indicated tripeptide formation after 10 min, continuing up to 5.5 h. The ester Z-Phe-Arg-OMe was detected throughout the experiment but the hydrolysis product Z-Phe-Arg-OH appeared early and in quite large amounts. We believe that this is the first application of a parasite protease in enzymatic peptide synthesis

    Coupled oxidation–reduction of butanol–hexanal by resting Rhodococcus erythropolis NCIMB 13064 cells in liquid and gas phases

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    Rhodococcus erythropolis is a promising Gram-positive bacterium capable of numerous bioconversions including those involving alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). In this work, we compared and optimized the redox biocatalytic performances of 1-butanol-grown R. erythropolis NCIMB 13064 cells in aqueous and in non-conventional gas phase using the 1-butanol–hexanal oxidation–reduction as model reaction. Oxidation of 1-butanol to butanal is tightly coupled to the reduction of hexanal to 1-hexanol at the level of a nicotinoprotein–ADH-like enzyme. Cell viability is dispensable for reaction. In aqueous batch conditions, fresh and lyophilized cells are efficient redox catalysts (oxidation–reduction rate = 76 micromol min−1 g cell dry mass−1) being also reactive towards benzyl alcohol, (S)-2-pentanol, and geraniol as reductants. However, butanol hexanal oxidation–reduction is strongly limited by product accumulation and by hexanal toxicity that is amajor factor influencing cell behavior and performance. Reaction rate is maximal at 40 ◦C pH 7.0 in aqueous phase and at 60 ◦C- pH 7.0–9.0 in gas phase. Importantly, lyophilized cells also showed to be promising redox catalysts in the gas phase (at least 65 micromol min−1 g cell dry mass−1). The system is notably stable for several days at moderate thermodynamic activities of hexanal (0.06–0.12), 1-butanol (0.12) and water (0.7)

    Influence of Temperature on the Induction of Alkali-Stress Adaptation and its Stability in Listeria Monocytogenes Serotypes 1/2a and 4b

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    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of temperature on inducing an alkaline-tolerance response in L. monocytogenes (Lm) serotypes 1/2a and 4b. When Lm cells were pre-exposed to a sublethal alkali pH of 9.0 at different temperatures, two main patterns were observed: (1) Alkali-stress adaptation was readily induced in Lm when cells were pre-exposed to a sublethal alkali pH of 9.0 for 5-15 min at 37°C or 22°C; and (2) Alkali-stress adaptation was not induced in Lm when cells were pre-exposed to a sublethal alkali pH of 9.0 for 1 h at 4°C. However, exposure of Lm to 4°C for 24 h enhanced its survival against lethal alkaline challenge (pH 11.5). Also, alkali-stress adaptation if occurred at 37°C or 22°C was highly stable at 4ºC even in the absence of mild alkaline stress which should be taken into account while conducting risk analysis for this pathogen

    Timing and documentation of key events in neonatal resuscitation

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    Only a minority of babies require extended resuscitation at birth. Resuscitations concerning babies who die or who survive with adverse outcomes are increasingly subject to medicolegal scrutiny. Our aim was to describe real-life timings of key resuscitation events observed in a historical series of newborns who required full resuscitation at birth. Twenty-seven babies born in our centre over a 10-year period had an Apgar score of 0 at 1 min and required full resuscitation. The median (95% confidence interval) postnatal age at achieving key events were commencing cardiac compressions, 2.0 (1.5–4.0) min; endotracheal intubation, 3.8 (2.0–6.0) min; umbilical venous catheterisation 9.0 (7.5–12.0) min; and administration of first adrenaline dose 10.0 (8.0–14.0) min. Conclusion: The wide range of timings presented from real-life cases may prove useful to clinicians involved in medical negligence claims and provide a baseline for quality improvements in resuscitation training

    Combined laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and endoscopic pyelolithotripsy for staghorn calculi. Long-term follow-up results from a case series

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    Purpose: Staghorn renal stones are a challenging field in urology. Due to their high recurrence rates, particularly those associated with an infective process, a complete removal is the ultimate goal in their management. We report our experience with a combined approach of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and endoscopic pyelolithotripsy, the stone clearance rate, and long-term, follow-up outcomes. Methods: From June 2012 to October 2014, nine adult patients with large staghorn renal calculi (mean size, 7.2 cm; range, 6.2–9.0 cm) underwent a combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach. The technique comprised laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and holmium-YAG laser stone fragmentation with the use of a flexible cystoscope introduced through a 12 mm trocar. Results: The average operative time was 140 min (range, 90–190 min). The mean estimated hemoglobin loss was 0.6 mmol/l (range 0.5–0.7 mmol/l). None of the patients required an open- surgery conversion. The mean hospital stay was 4 days (range, 2–6 days). A computed tomography urogram control at 6 months of follow up did not show any stone recurrence. Conclusions: Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy combined with endoscopic pyelolithotripsy could be a therapeutic option in cases where mini-invasive procedures, that is, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) have failed. This technique has a high stone-clearance rate (75–100%) comparable with open surgery and PCNL. However, it could be technically demanding and should be performed by skilled laparoscopy surgeons

    In vitro Antibacterial and Morphological Effects of the Urushiol Component of the Sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on Helicobacter pylori

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    Eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection have some side effects, compliance problems, relapses, and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, alternative anti-H. pylori or supportive antimicrobial agents with fewer disadvantages are necessary for the treatment of H. pylori. We investigated the pH-(5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0) and concentration (0.032, 0.064, 0.128, 0.256, 0.514, and 1.024 mg/mL)-dependent antibacterial activity of crude urushiol extract from the sap of the Korean lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) against 3 strains (NCTC11637, 69, and 219) of H. pylori by the agar dilution method. In addition, the serial (before incubation, 3, 6, and 10 min after incubation) morphological effects of urushiol on H. pylori were examined by electron microscopy. All strains survived only within pH 6.0-9.0. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the extract against strains ranged from 0.064 mg/mL to 0.256 mg/mL. Urushiol caused mainly separation of the membrane, vacuolization, and lysis of H. pylori. Interestingly, these changes were observed within 10 min following incubation with the 1×minimal inhibitory concentrations of urushiol. The results of this work suggest that urushiol has potential as a rapid therapeutic against H. pylori infection by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane

    Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties

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    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd

    Acute effect of prednisolone on renal handling of sodium.

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    The effect of prednisolone on renal handling of sodium (Na) was studied in rats under three experimental conditions: 1) hydropenia, 2) water diuresis, and 3) distal tubular blockade (DTB). Prednisolone, 0.25 mg/100 g per hr, was infused directly into left renal artery and urine was collected separately from each kidney. Predominantly unilateral increases in urine flow (V) and Na excretion were noticed in all experiments during prednisolone infusion. In the hydropenic rats the maximal increments on the infused side were, for V (mean ± SD), from 9.3 ± 1.5 to 21.4 ± 0.8 μl/min (P < 0.001); for C(Na)/C(In), from 0.28 ± 0.11 to 2.97 ± 0.71 % (P < 0.005); and for [Formula: see text] , from 2.93 ± 2.26 to 5.32 ± 1.92% (P < 0.05). In the rats with water diuresis, the maximal increases were, for V/C(In), from 5.87 ± 1.97 to 10.1 ± 6.0% (P < 0.005); for C(H(2)O)/C(In), from 4.09 ± 0.68 to 6.00 ± 0.44% (P < 0.0005); and for C(Na)/C(In), from 0.22 ± 0.07 to 0.70 ± 0.38% (P < 0.01). In DTB-rats the maximal increases were for V from 48.6 ± 9.0 to 72.7 ± 14.1 μl/min (P < 0.0005) and for C(Na)/C(In) from 9.42 ± 2.97 to 20.23 ± 7.34% (P < 0.005). In the contralateral kidney these changes were less pronounced. These observations suggest that prednisolone depresses directly Na reabsorption. The association of natriuresis with augmented [Formula: see text] and C(H(2)O)/C(In) during hydropenia and water diuresis, respectively, and the increases in V and C(Na)/C(In) during DTB, all are consistent with inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule

    Supraspinal Fatigue Impedes Recovery From a Low-Intensity Sustained Contraction in Old Adults

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    This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue and contractile properties to the age difference in neuromuscular fatigue during and recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction. Cortical stimulation was used to evoke measures of voluntary activation and muscle relaxation during and after a contraction sustained at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure with elbow flexor muscles in 14 young adults (20.9 ± 3.6 yr, 7 men) and 14 old adults (71.6 ± 5.4 yr, 7 men). Old adults exhibited a longer time to task failure than the young adults (23.8 ± 9.0 vs. 11.5 ± 3.9 min, respectively, P \u3c 0.001). The time to failure was associated with initial peak rates of relaxation of muscle fibers and pressor response (P \u3c 0.05). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch; SIT) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during brief MVCs, increased during the fatiguing contraction (P \u3c 0.001) and then decreased during recovery (P = 0.02). The increase in the SIT was greater for the old adults than the young adults during the fatiguing contraction and recovery (P \u3c 0.05). Recovery of MVC torque was less for old than young adults at 10 min post-fatiguing contraction (75.1 ± 8.7 vs. 83.6 ± 7.8% of control MVC, respectively, P = 0.01) and was associated with the recovery of the SIT (r = −0.59, r2 = 0.35, P \u3c 0.001). Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and the silent period elicited during the fatiguing contraction increased less for old adults than young adults (P \u3c 0.05). The greater fatigue resistance with age during a low-intensity sustained contraction was attributable to mechanisms located within the muscle. Recovery of maximal strength after the low-intensity fatiguing contraction however, was impeded more for old adults than young because of greater supraspinal fatigue. Recovery of strength could be an important variable to consider in exercise prescription of old populations
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