3,506,610 research outputs found

    Evidence on the prevalence and geographic distribution of major cardiovascular risk factors in Italy

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    Objective: To assess the prevalence and geographic distribution of major cardiovascular risk factors in a large community-wide sample of the Italian population. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Standardized methods were used to collect and measure cardiovascular risk factors. Data were adjusted for survey weightings. Qualitative and quantitative variables were compared with parametric and non-parametric tests, as appropriate. Setting: Towns (n 193) across different Italian regions. Subjects: Unselected adults (n 24 213; 12 626 men; 11 587 women) aged 18–98 years (mean age 56·9 (sd 15·3) years), who volunteered to participate in a community-wide screening programme over a 2 d period in 2007. Results: Overall, the prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors was: obesity, 22·7 % (women 18·9 %, men 26·1 %); overweight, 44·7 % (women 31·6 %, men 56·7 %); hypertension, 59·6 % (women 48·3 %, men 70·0 %); dyslipidaemia, 59·1 % (women 57·7 %, men 60·3 %); diabetes, 15·3 % (women 11·2 %, men 19·0 %) and smoking, 19·8 % (women 14·0 %, men 25·2 %). We found a high prevalence of unhealthy eating habits; fruit and vegetable consumption was below the recommended range in 60 % of the study population. Ninety per cent of the study population had more than one cardiovascular risk factor and 84 % had between two and five cardiovascular risk factors. There were differences among Italian macro-areas mainly for obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Conclusions: The study provides alarming evidence on current prevalence data for major cardiovascular risk factors in a large sample of the Italian population. Particularly, obesity and hypertension represent a relevant public health problem. There is a pressing need for effective preventive health measures which must also take into account the differences among Italian macro-areas

    But where are men?: Central-state public policies to combat violence against women in post-authoritarian Spain (1975-1999)

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    Proceedings of the Council of Europe Seminar on Men and Violence Against Women. Strasbourg France: 7-8 October, 1999.Publicad

    Evaluation of an epigenetic assay for predicting repeat prostate biopsy outcome in African American men

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an epigenetic assay performed on tissue from negative prostate biopsies in a group of African American (AA) men undergoing repeat biopsy, and to compare accuracy for predicting repeat biopsy outcome to prior studies conducted in predominantly Caucasian populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 211 AA men from 7 urology centers across the United States; all of whom were undergoing 12-core transrectal ultrasound-guided repeat biopsy within 30 months from a negative index biopsy. All biopsy cores from the negative index biopsy were profiled for the epigenetic biomarkers GSTP1, APC, and RASSF1 using ConfirmMDx for Prostate Cancer (MDxHealth, Irvine, CA). RESULTS: Upon repeat biopsy, 130 of 211 subjects (62%) had no prostate cancer (PCa) detected and 81 of 211 (38%) were diagnosed with PCa. Of the subjects with PCa, 54 (67%) were diagnosed with Gleason score (GS) = 7 disease. For detection of PCa at repeat biopsy, ConfirmMDx sensitivity was 74.1% and specificity was 60.0%, equivalent to prior studies (P = .235 and .697, respectively). For detection of GS >= 7 PCa, sensitivity was 78% and specificity was 53%. The negative predictive values for detection of all PCa and GS >= 7 PCa were 78.8% and 94.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this group of AA men, we successfully validated an epigenetic assay to assess the need for repeat biopsy. Results were consistent with previous studies from predominantly Caucasian populations. Therefore, the ConfirmMDx assay is a useful tool for risk stratification of AA men who had an initial negative biopsy

    Variability of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior

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    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate variability of sedentary behavior (SB) throughout a 7-d measurement period and to determine if G7 d of SB measurement would be comparable with the typical 7-d measurement period. Methods: Retrospective data from Ball State University_s Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory on 293 participants (99 men, 55 T 14 yr, body mass index = 29 T 5 kgImj2; 194 women, 51 T 12 yr, body mass index = 27 T 7 kgImj2) with seven consecutive days of data collected with ActiGraph accelerometers were analyzed (ActiGraph, Fort Walton Beach, FL). Time spent in SB (either G100 counts per minute or G150 counts per minute) and breaks in SB were compared between days and by sex using a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Stepwise regression was performed to determine if G7 d of SB measurement were comparable with the 7-d method, using an adjusted R2 of Q0.9 as a criterion for equivalence. Results: There were no differences in daily time spent in SB between the 7 d for all participants. However, there was a significant interaction between sex and days, with women spending less time in SB on both Saturdays and Sundays than men when using the 100 counts per minute cut-point. Stepwise regression showed using any 4 d would be comparable with a 7-d measurement (R2 9 0.90). Conclusions: When assessed over a 7-d measurement period, SB appears to be very stable from day to day, although there may be some small differences in time spent in SB and breaks in SB between men and women, particularly on weekend days. The stepwise regression analysis suggests that a measurement period as short as 4 d could provide comparable data (91% of variance) with a 1-wk assessment. Shorter assessment periods would reduce both researcher and subject burden in data collection

    Age and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Prior to Diagnosis Predict Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer.

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    A single early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been correlated with a higher likelihood of prostate cancer diagnosis and death in younger men. PSA testing in older men has been considered of limited utility. We evaluated prostate cancer death in relation to age and PSA level immediately prior to prostate cancer diagnosis. Using the Veterans Affairs database, we identified 230,081 men aged 50-89 years diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one prior PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Prostate cancer-specific death over time was calculated for patients stratified by age group (e.g., 50-59 years, through 80-89 years) and PSA range at diagnosis (10 ranges) using Kaplan-Meier methods. Risk of 10-year prostate cancer mortality across age and PSA was compared using log-rank tests with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. 10.5% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer died of cancer during the 10-year study period (mean follow-up = 3.7 years). Higher PSA values prior to diagnosis predict a higher risk of death in all age groups (p < 0.0001). Within the same PSA range, older age groups are at increased risk for death from prostate cancer (p < 0.0001). For PSA of 7-10 ng/mL, cancer-specific death, 10 years after diagnosis, increased from 7% for age 50-59 years to 51% for age 80-89 years. Men older than 70 years are more likely to die of prostate cancer at any PSA level than younger men, suggesting prostate cancer remains a significant problem among older men (even those aged 80+) and deserves additional study

    Statistics of stable marriages

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    In the stable marriage problem N men and N women have to be matched by pairs under the constraint that the resulting matching is stable. We study the statistical properties of stable matchings in the large N limit using both numerical and analytical methods. Generalizations of the model including singles and unequal numbers of men and women are also investigated.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures; to appear in Physica

    Sex-specific-differences in cardiovascular risk in type-1-diabetes : a cross sectional study

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    Background: Little is known about the impact of sex-specific differences in the management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Thus, we evaluated the influence of gender on risk factors, complications, clinical care and adherence in patients with T1DM. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, sex-specific disparities in glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetic complications, concomitant medication use and adherence to treatment recommendations were evaluated in 225 consecutive patients (45.3% women) who were comparable with respect to age, diabetes duration, and body mass index. Results: Although women with T1DM had a higher total cholesterol than men, triglycerides were higher in obese men and males with HbA1c>7% than in their female counterparts. No sex differences were observed in glycaemic control and in micro- or macrovascular complications. However, the subgroup analysis showed that nephropathy was more common in obese men, hyperlipidaemic women and all hypertensive patients, whereas peripheral neuropathy was more common in hyperlipidaemic women. Retinopathy was found more frequently in women with HbA1c>7%, obese men and in both sexes with a long duration of diabetes. The multivariate analysis revealed that microvascular complications were associated with the duration of disease and BMI in both sexes and with hyperlipidaemia in males. The overall adherence to interventions according to the guidelines was higher in men than in women. This adherence was concerned particularly with co-medication in patients diagnosed with hypertension, aspirin prescription in elderly patients and the achievement of target lipid levels following the prescription of statins. Conclusions: Our data showed sex differences in lipids and overweight in patients with T1DM. Although glycaemic control and the frequency of diabetic complications were comparable between the sexes, the overall adherence to guidelines, particularly with respect to the prescription of statins and aspirin, was lower in women than in men

    Duration and breaks in sedentary behaviour: Accelerometer data from 1566 community-dwelling older men (British Regional Heart Study)

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    Background: Sedentary behaviours are increasingly recognised as raising risk of CVD events, diabetes and mortality, independently of physical activity (PA) levels. However, little is known about patterns of sedentary behaviour in older adults. Methods: Cross sectional study of 1566/3137 (50% response) men aged 71-91 years from a UK population-based cohort study. Men wore a GT3x accelerometer over the hip for one week in 2010-11. Mean daily minutes of SB, % of day in sedentary behaviours, sedentary bouts and breaks were calculated and summarized by health and demographic characteristics. Results: 1403 ambulatory men aged 78.4 years (SD 4.6 years) with ≥600 minutes of accelerometer wear on ≥3 days had complete data on covariables. Men spent on average 618 minutes (SD=83), or 72% of their day in sedentary behaviours (<100 counts/minute). On average men accumulated 72 spells of sedentary behaviours per day, with 7 breaks in each sedentary hour. Men had on average 5.1 sedentary bouts of ≥30 minutes, which accounted for 43% of sedentary time, and 1.4 bouts of ≥60 minutes, which accounted for 19% of daily sedentary time. Men who were over 80 years old, obese, depressed and had multiple chronic conditions accumulated more sedentary time and spent more time in longer sedentary bouts. Conclusions: Older men spend nearly three quarters of their day in sedentary behaviours, mostly accumulated in short bouts, although bouts lasting ≥30 minutes accounted for nearly half of the sedentary time each day. Men with medical risk factors were more likely to also display sedentary behaviour

    African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men.

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    PURPOSE: To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer and similar cancer of the prostate risk assessment-postsurgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA and 1,031 CS) who met the National comprehensive cancer network criteria for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race affected FFbF in men with RP-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S scores. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (P = 0.035). There was no significant difference in one or more adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P = 0.35) or CAPRA-S score (P = 0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (P = 0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (hazard ratio = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.08-3.72; P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment

    A Qualitative Study on Men’s Involvement in Reproductive Health of Women among Auto-rickshaw Drivers in Bangalore Rural

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    Background: Men’s reproductive health directly affects the partner’s reproductive health. Men also may serve as gatekeepers to women’s access to reproductive health services. “Male involvement” in reproductive health and family planning programmes is not just promoting the use of male methods of contraception, but men’s supportive roles in their families. Objectives: 1. To know the attitudes of men regarding the family planning and women’s health. 2. To know the involvement and participation of men in maternity, delivery, post-natal care and family planning. 3. To study the treatment seeking behaviour of men for the reproductive health. problems. Methods: The study was conducted on the auto-rickshaw drivers in the Hoskote town. Total 96 married men were interviewed using a well-designed and pretested questionnaire. The aspects covered are awareness and practices related to RTIs/STIs/HIV/AIDS, family planning, antenatal care and treatment seeking behaviour for the reproductive health problems. Results: Majority (62.50%) of the men did not help their wives seek antenatal care. Only few 7(7.29%) were aware of parameters of antenatal care. There were 44 (45.83%) men who reported the symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). Among the men suffering from RTIs, only 32(72.73%) took treatment. Only 6(6.25%) people were aware of the all family planning methods. There were 39 (40.63%) participants having extramarital sexual relations with prostitutes or other females, of which 25(64.10%) people do not use condoms while engaging in the high risk sexual encounters. There were 34 (35.42%) men not aware of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Antenatal care and family planning are considered the primary responsibility of the women. Also majority of the men in the study group have high risk sexual behaviour. The awareness regarding HIV/AIDS is low
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