2,774,592 research outputs found

    Circular 91

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    Plants of Begonia x tuberhybrida ‘Nonstop’, ‘Clips’, and ‘Musical’ were exposed to 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks of short days (SD, 9 hours day length) initiated at 3 stages of plant development (immediately upon germination, 4 or 8 weeks after germination). Prior to and succeeding short days, plants were exposed to long days (LD, 16 hours day length). Musical flowered on average 68 days, Clips 78 days and Nonstop 83 days after germination under continuous LD conditions. In Nonstop, SD for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks delayed plant development by an average 12 days compared to LD grown plants. One, 2, or 3 weeks of SD resulted in 1 week slower flowering and 4 weeks of SD resulted in 2 weeks later flowering in Clips. The sensitivity to SD varied with plant stage in Musical. Three or 4 weeks of SD initiated at germination or 4 weeks after germination resulted in an average delayed flowering of 13 days compared to LD plants. SD initiated 8 weeks after germination had no effect on rate of development in Musical

    Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men

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    <p>Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) increases haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and maximal oxygen uptake (v˙ O2 max).</p> <p>Purpose: This study defined the time course of changes in Hbmass, v˙ O2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field.</p> <p>Methods: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IUNkg21 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hbmass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v˙ O2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study.</p> <p>Results: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ,6% after administration (10:3061:07 min:sec vs. 11:0861:15 min:sec, p,0.001) and remained significantly enhanced by ,3% 4 weeks after administration (10:4661:13 min:sec, p,0.001), while v˙ O2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.765.8 mLNmin21Nkg21 vs. 56.066.2 mLNmin21Nkg21, p,0.001) and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.065.6 mLNmin21Nkg21, p = 0.021). Hbmass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.261.5 gNkg21 vs. 12.761.2 gNkg21, p,0.001). The rate of decrease in Hbmass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (20.53 gNkg21Nwk21, 95% confidence interval (CI) (20.68, 20.38) vs. 0.54 gNkg21Nwk21, CI (0.46, 0.63)) but Hbmass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.761.1 gNkg21, p<0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with rHuEpo-induced elevated v˙ O2 max and Hbmass.</p&gt

    Assessment of myocardial injury after reperfused infarction by T1ρ cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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    BackgroundThe evolution of T1ρ and of other endogenous contrast methods (T2, T1) in the first month after reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) is uncertain. We conducted a study of reperfused MI in pigs to serially monitor T1ρ, T2 and T1 relaxation, scar size and transmurality at 1 and 4 weeks post-MI.MethodsTen Yorkshire swine underwent 90 min of occlusion of the circumflex artery and reperfusion. T1ρ, T2 and native T1 maps and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data were collected at 1 week (n = 10) and 4 weeks (n = 5). Semi-automatic FWHM (full width half maximum) thresholding was used to assess scar size and transmurality and compared to histology. Relaxation times and contrast-to-noise ratio were compared in healthy and remote myocardium at 1 and 4 weeks. Linear regression and Bland-Altman was performed to compare infarct size and transmurality.ResultsRelaxation time differences between infarcted and remote myocardial tissue were ∆T1 (infarct-remote) = 421.3 ± 108.8 (1 week) and 480.0 ± 33.2 ms (4 week), ∆T1ρ = 68.1 ± 11.6 and 74.3 ± 14.2, and ∆T2 = 51.0 ± 10.1 and 59.2 ± 11.4 ms. Contrast-to-noise ratio was CNRT1 = 7.0 ± 3.5 (1 week) and 6.9 ± 2.4 (4 week), CNRT1ρ = 12.0 ± 6.2 and 12.3 ± 3.2, and CNRT2 = 8.0 ± 3.6 and 10.3 ± 5.8. Infarct size was not significantly different for T1ρ, T1 and T2 compared to LGE (p = 0.14) and significantly decreased from 1 to 4 weeks (p < 0.01). Individual infarct size changes were ∆T1ρ = -3.8%, ∆T1 = -3.5% and ∆LGE = -2.8% from 1 - 4 weeks, but there was no observed change in infarct size for T2 or histologically.ConclusionsT1ρ was highly correlated with alterations left ventricle (LV) pathology at 1 and 4 weeks post-MI and therefore it may be a useful method endogenous contrast imaging of infarction

    Species-specific differences and similarities in the behavior of hand-raised dog and wolf pups in social situations with humans

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    In order to reveal early species-specific differences, we observed the behavior of dog puppies (n = 11) and wolf pups (n = 13) hand raised and intensively socialized in an identical way. The pups were studied in two object-preference tests at age 3, 4, and 5 weeks. After a short isolation, we observed the subjects' behavior in the presence of a pair of objects, one was always the subject's human foster parent (caregiver) and the other was varied; nursing bottle (3 weeks), unfamiliar adult dog (3 and 5 weeks), unfamiliar experimenter (4 and 5 weeks), and familiar conspecific age mate (4 weeks). Dogs and wolves did not differ in their general activity level during the tests. Wolf pups showed preference for the proximity of the caregiver in two of the tests; Bottle-Caregiver at the age of 3 weeks and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 5 weeks, while dogs showed preference to the caregiver in three tests; conspecific Pup-Caregiver and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 4 weeks and dog-caregiver at the age of 5. Compared to wolves, dogs tended to display more communicative signals that could potentially facilitate social interactions, such as distress vocalization, tail wagging, and gazing at the humans' face. In contrast to dog puppies, wolf pups showed aggressive behavior toward a familiar experimenter and also seemed to be more prone to avoidance. Our results demonstrate that already at this early age-despite unprecedented intensity of socialization and the comparable social (human) environment during early development-there are specific behavioral differences between wolves and dogs mostly with regard to their interactions with humans

    Effects of reduced-volume of sprint interval training and the time course of physiological and performance adaptations

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    This study sought to determine the time course of training adaptations to two different sprint interval training programmes with the same sprint: rest ratio (1:8) but different sprint duration. Nine participants (M: 7; F: 2) were assigned to 15-s training group (15TG) consisting of 4 to 6 x 15-s sprints interspersed with 2-min recovery, whereas eight participants (M: 5; F: 3) were assigned to 30-s training group (30TG) consisting of 4 to 6 30-s sprints interspersed with 4-min recovery. Both groups performed their respective training twice per week over 9 weeks and changes in peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were assessed every 3 weeks. Additional 8 healthy active adults (M: 6; F: 2) completed the performance assessments 9 weeks apart without performing training (control group, CON). Following 9 weeks of training, both groups improved V̇O2peak (15TG: 12.1%; 30TG: 12.8%, P < 0.05) and TTE (15TG: 16.2%; 30TG: 12.8%, P < 0.01) to a similar extent. However, while both groups showed the greatest gains in V̇O2peak at 3 weeks (15TG: 16.6%; 30TG: 17.0%, P < 0.001), those in TTE were greatest at 9 weeks. CON did not change any of performance variables following 9 weeks. This study demonstrated that whilst the changes in cardiorespiratory function plateau within several weeks with sprint interval training, endurance capacity (TTE) is more sensitive to such training over a longer time frame in moderately-trained individuals. Furthermore, a 50% reduction in sprint duration does not diminish overall training adaptations over 9 weeks

    Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial

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    <b>Background</b> The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma.<p></p> <b>Methods</b> Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day) versus placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment inhaled beclometasone (400 ug per day) was added to both treatment arms for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome was morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks treatment. Secondary outcome measures included indices of asthma control and airway inflammation.<p></p> <b>Results</b> At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the atorvastatin group compared to the placebo group in morning peak expiratory flow [-10.67 L/min, 95% CI -38.70 to 17.37, p=0.449], but there was an improvement with atorvastatin in asthma quality of life score [0.52, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.87 p=0.005]. There was no significant improvement with atorvastatin and inhaled beclometasone compared to inhaled beclometasone alone in outcome measures at 8 weeks.<p></p> <b>Conclusions</b> Short-term treatment with atorvastatin does not alter lung function but may improve asthma quality of life in smokers with mild to moderate asthma. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT0046382

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine given shortly after birth stimulates effective antibody concentrations and primes immunological memory for sustained infant protection.

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    BACKGROUND: In developing countries, newborn immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) could protect young infants who are at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) but might lead to immune tolerance. METHODS: In a randomized trial, young infants received 7-valent PCV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks (Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI] group) or 0, 10, and 14 weeks (newborn group). Safety was monitored actively at 2-7 days and then passively. Serum samples obtained at birth and 6, 10, 14, 18, 36, and 37 weeks were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anticapsular immunoglobulin G concentration and avidity. Infants were boosted with either 7-valent PCV or one-fifth dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 36 weeks. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained at 18 and 36 weeks. RESULTS: Three-hundred neonates and young infants were enrolled. Newborn vaccination was well tolerated. Adverse events occurred equally in each group; none was related to immunization. One infant, immunized at birth, died of unrelated neonatal sepsis. At 18 weeks, protective concentrations (≥0.35 μg/mL) were achieved against each serotype by ≥87% of infants with no significant differences between groups. Geometric mean concentrations were higher in the EPI group for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F at 18 weeks and for serotype 4 at 36 weeks. Avidity was greater in the newborn group for serotypes 4, 6B, and 19F at 18 weeks and for serotype 19F at 36 weeks. Booster responses and vaccine-type/nonvaccine-type carriage prevalence did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: PCV was safe, immunogenic, and primed for memory when given at birth. There was no evidence of immune tolerance. Vaccination beginning at birth offers an alternative to control IPD in vulnerable young infants

    The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the development of inflammation in lungs, gut and joints of TNFΔARE mice

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    The inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha is a central mediator in many immune-mediated diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking (CS) is a prominent common risk factor in these TNF-dependent diseases. We exposed TNF Delta ARE mice; in which a systemic TNF-alpha overexpression leads to the development of inflammation; to 2 or 4 weeks of air or CS. We investigated the effect of deregulated TNF expression on CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and the effect of CS exposure on the initiation and progression of gut and joint inflammation. Upon 2 weeks of CS exposure, inflammation in lungs of TNF Delta ARE mice was significantly aggravated. However, upon 4 weeks of CS-exposure, this aggravation was no longer observed. TNF Delta ARE mice have no increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a diminished neutrophil response in the lungs after 4 weeks of CS exposure. In the gut and joints of TNF Delta ARE mice, 2 or 4 weeks of CS exposure did not modulate the development of inflammation. In conclusion, CS exposure does not modulate gut and joint inflammation in TNF Delta ARE mice. The lung responses towards CS in TNF Delta ARE mice however depend on the duration of CS exposure

    Utilizing micro-computed tomography to evaluate bone structure surrounding dental implants: a comparison with histomorphometry

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    Although histology has proven to be a reliable method to evaluate the ossoeintegration of a dental implant, it is costly, time consuming, destructive, and limited to one or few sections. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) is fast and delivers three-dimensional information, but this technique has not been widely used and validated for histomorphometric parameters yet. This study compared µCT and histomorphometry by means of evaluating their accuracy in determining the bone response to two different implant materials. In total, 32 titanium (Ti) and 16 hydroxyapatite (HA) implants were installed in 16 lop-eared rabbits. After 2 and 4 weeks, the animals were scarified, and the samples retrieved. After embedding, the samples were scanned with µCT and analyzed three-dimensionally for bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC). Thereafter, all samples were sectioned and stained for histomorphometry. For the Ti implants, the mean BIC was 25.25 and 28.86% after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, when measured by histomorphometry, while it was 24.11 and 24.53% when measured with µCT. BA was 35.4 and 31.97% after 2 and 4 weeks for histomorphometry and 29.06 and 27.65% for µCT. For the HA implants, the mean BIC was 28.49 and 42.51% after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, when measured by histomorphometry, while it was 33.74 and 42.19% when measured with µCT. BA was 30.59 and 47.17% after 2 and 4 weeks for histomorphometry and 37.16 and 44.95% for µCT. Direct comparison showed that only the 2 weeks BA for the titanium implants was significantly different between µCT and histology (p = 0.008). Although the technique has its limitations, µCT corresponded well with histomorphometry and should be considered as a tool to evaluate bone structure around implants
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