4,232 research outputs found

    In vivo measurements with robust silicon-based multielectrode arrays with extreme shaft lengths

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    In this paper, manufacturing and in vivo testing of extreme-long Si-based neural microelectrode arrays are presented. Probes with different shaft lengths (15–70 mm) are formed by deep reactive ion etching and have been equipped with platinum electrodes of various configurations. In vivo measurements on rats indicate good mechanical stability, robust implantation, and targeting capability. High-quality signals have been recorded from different locations of the cerebrum of the rodents. The accompanied tissue damage is characterized by histology

    The biochemical, physiological, and metabolic evaluation of human subjects in a life support systems evaluator and on a liquid food diet Final report, 12 Jun. 1964 - 23 Feb. 1965

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    Biochemical, physiological, and metabolic analysis of subjects in life support system on liquid food diets during space environment simulatio

    Neutrophil extracellular traps: from physiology to pathology.

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    At the frontline of the host defence response, neutrophil antimicrobial functions have adapted to combat infections and injuries of different origins and magnitude. The release of web-like DNA structures named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) constitutes an important mechanism by which neutrophils prevent pathogen dissemination or deal with microorganisms of a bigger size. At the same time, nuclear and granule proteins with microbicidal activity bind to these DNA structures promoting the elimination of entrapped pathogens. However, these toxic properties may produce unwanted effects in the host, when neutrophils uncontrollably release NETs upon persistent inflammation. As a consequence, NET accumulation can produce vessel occlusion, tissue damage, and prolonged inflammation associated with the progression and exacerbation of multiple pathologic conditions. This review outlines recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of NET release and functions in sterile disease. We also discuss mechanisms of physiological regulation and the importance of neutrophil heterogeneity in NET formation and composition.C.S.-R. receives funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB1123 TP A6). O.S. receives funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB914 TP B8, SFB1123 TP A6, TP B5, SFB1009 TP A13), the Vetenskapsra˚det (2017-01762), the Else-Kro¨ner-Fresenius Stiftung (2017_A13), the Swedish Heart–Lung Foundation (20190317), and the Leducq foundation (TNE-18CVD04). P.L. receives funding support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1R01HL134892), the American Heart Association (18CSA34080399), the RRM Charitable Fund, and the Simard Fund. V.P. receives core funding from the Francis Crick institute funded by UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK and the Wellcome Trust (FC0010129, FC001134). I.V.A was funded by an EMBO LTF (ALTF 113-2019). A.H. is funded by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (RTI2018-095497-B-I00), La Caixa Foundation (HR17_00527), and the European Commision (FET-OPEN 861878).S

    Multi-Domain Cognitive Assessment of Male Mice Shows Space Radiation Is Not Harmful to High-Level Cognition and Actually Improves Pattern Separation

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    Astronauts on interplanetary missions - such as to Mars - will be exposed to space radiation, a spectrum of highly-charged, fast-moving particles that includes 56Fe and 28Si. Earth-based preclinical studies show space radiation decreases rodent performance in low- and some high-level cognitive tasks. Given astronaut use of touchscreen platforms during training and space flight and given the ability of rodent touchscreen tasks to assess functional integrity of brain circuits and multiple cognitive domains in a non-aversive way, here we exposed 6-month-old C57BL/6J male mice to whole-body space radiation and subsequently assessed them on a touchscreen battery. Relative to Sham treatment, 56Fe irradiation did not overtly change performance on tasks of visual discrimination, reversal learning, rule-based, or object-spatial paired associates learning, suggesting preserved functional integrity of supporting brain circuits. Surprisingly, 56Fe irradiation improved performance on a dentate gyrus-reliant pattern separation task; irradiated mice learned faster and were more accurate than controls. Improved pattern separation performance did not appear to be touchscreen-, radiation particle-, or neurogenesis-dependent, as 56Fe and 28Si irradiation led to faster context discrimination in a non-touchscreen task and 56Fe decreased new dentate gyrus neurons relative to Sham. These data urge revisitation of the broadly-held view that space radiation is detrimental to cognition

    European Working Time Directive and doctors' health: a systematic review of the available epidemiological evidence

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    Objective: To summarise the available scientific evidence on the health effects of exposure to working beyond the limit number of hours established by the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on physicians. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out by independent pairs of researchers using pre-established criteria. Setting: Physicians of any medical, surgical or community specialty, working in any possible setting (hospitals, primary healthcare, etc), as well as trainees, residents, junior house officers or postgraduate interns, were included. Participants: The total number of participants was 14 338. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Health effects classified under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results: Over 3000 citations and 110 full articles were reviewed. From these, 11 studies of high or intermediate quality carried out in North America, Europe and Japan met the inclusion criteria. Six studies included medical residents, junior doctors or house officers and the five others included medical specialists or consultants, medical, dental, and general practitioners and hospital physicians. Evidence of an association was found between percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents with extended long working hours (LWH)/days or very LWH/weeks. The evidence was insufficient for mood disorders and general health. No studies on other health outcomes were identified. Conclusions: LWH could increase the risk of percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents, and possibly other incidents at work through the same pathway. While associations are clear, the existing evidence does not allow for an established causal or ‘dose–response’ relationship between LWH and incidents at work, or for a threshold number of extended hours above which there is a significantly higher risk and the hours physicians could work and remain safe and healthy. Policymakers should consider safety issues when working on relaxing EWTD for doctors

    Physiological and transcriptome changes induced by Pseudomonas putida acquisition of an integrative and conjugative element.

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    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) comprise ubiquitous large mobile regions in prokaryotic chromosomes that transmit vertically to daughter cells and transfer horizontally to distantly related lineages. Their evolutionary success originates in maximized combined ICE-host fitness trade-offs, but how the ICE impacts on the host metabolism and physiology is poorly understood. Here we investigate global changes in the host genetic network and physiology of Pseudomonas putida with or without an integrated ICEclc, a model ICE widely distributed in proteobacterial genomes. Genome-wide gene expression differences were analyzed by RNA-seq using exponentially growing or stationary phase-restimulated cultures on 3-chlorobenzoate, an aromatic compound metabolizable thanks to specific ICEclc-located genes. We found that the presence of ICEclc imposes a variety of changes in global pathways such as cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which were more numerous in stationary-restimulated than exponential phase cells. Unexpectedly, ICEclc stimulates cellular motility and leads to more rapid growth on 3-chlorobenzoate than cells carrying only the integrated clc genes. ICEclc also concomitantly activates the P. putida Pspu28-prophage, but this in itself did not provoke measurable fitness effects. ICEclc thus interferes in a number of cellular pathways, inducing both direct benefits as well as indirect costs in P. putida

    Present and future pharmacotherapeutic agents in heart failure: an evolving paradigm

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    Many conditions culminate in heart failure (HF), a multi-organ systemic syndrome with an intrinsically poor prognosis. Pharmacotherapeutic agents that correct neurohormonal dysregulation and haemodynamic instability have occupied the forefront of developments within the treatment of HF in the past. Indeed, multiple trials aimed to validate these agents in the 1980s and early 1990s, resulting in a large and robust evidence-base supporting their use clinically. An established treatment paradigm now exists for the treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but there have been very few notable developments in recent years. HF remains a significant health concern with an increasing incidence as the population ages. We may indeed be entering the surgical era for HF treatment, but these therapies remain expensive and inaccessible to many. Newer pharmacotherapeutic agents are slowly emerging, many targeting alternative therapeutic pathways, but with mixed results. Metabolic modulation and manipulation of the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide pathway have shown promise and could provide the answers to fill the therapeutic gap between medical interventions and surgery, but further definitive trials are warranted. We review the significant evidence base behind the current medical treatments for HFrEF, the physiology of metabolic impairment in HF, and discuss two promising novel agents, perhexiline and nitrite

    Chemotaxis of Arbacia punctulata spermatozoa to resact, a peptide from the egg jelly layer

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    Resact, a peptide of known sequence isolated from the jelly layer of Arbacia punctulata eggs, is a potent chemoattractant for A. punctulata spermatozoa. The chemotactic response is concentration dependent, is abolished by pretreatment of the spermatozoa with resact, and shows an absolute requirement for millimolar external calcium. A. punctulata spermatozoa do not respond to speract, a peptide isolated from the jelly layer of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs. This is the first report of animal sperm chemotaxis in response to a defined egg-derived molecule

    Local cortical dynamics of burst suppression in the anaesthetized brain

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    Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern that consists of a quasi-periodic alternation between isoelectric ‘suppressions’ lasting seconds or minutes, and high-voltage ‘bursts’. It is characteristic of a profoundly inactivated brain, occurring in conditions including hypothermia, deep general anaesthesia, infant encephalopathy and coma. It is also used in neurology as an electrophysiological endpoint in pharmacologically induced coma for brain protection after traumatic injury and during status epilepticus. Classically, burst suppression has been regarded as a ‘global’ state with synchronous activity throughout cortex. This assumption has influenced the clinical use of burst suppression as a way to broadly reduce neural activity. However, the extent of spatial homogeneity has not been fully explored due to the challenges in recording from multiple cortical sites simultaneously. The neurophysiological dynamics of large-scale cortical circuits during burst suppression are therefore not well understood. To address this question, we recorded intracranial electrocorticograms from patients who entered burst suppression while receiving propofol general anaesthesia. The electrodes were broadly distributed across cortex, enabling us to examine both the dynamics of burst suppression within local cortical regions and larger-scale network interactions. We found that in contrast to previous characterizations, bursts could be substantially asynchronous across the cortex. Furthermore, the state of burst suppression itself could occur in a limited cortical region while other areas exhibited ongoing continuous activity. In addition, we found a complex temporal structure within bursts, which recapitulated the spectral dynamics of the state preceding burst suppression, and evolved throughout the course of a single burst. Our observations imply that local cortical dynamics are not homogeneous, even during significant brain inactivation. Instead, cortical and, implicitly, subcortical circuits express seemingly different sensitivities to high doses of anaesthetics that suggest a hierarchy governing how the brain enters burst suppression, and emphasize the role of local dynamics in what has previously been regarded as a global state. These findings suggest a conceptual shift in how neurologists could assess the brain function of patients undergoing burst suppression. First, analysing spatial variation in burst suppression could provide insight into the circuit dysfunction underlying a given pathology, and could improve monitoring of medically-induced coma. Second, analysing the temporal dynamics within a burst could help assess the underlying brain state. This approach could be explored as a prognostic tool for recovery from coma, and for guiding treatment of status epilepticus. Overall, these results suggest new research directions and methods that could improve patient monitoring in clinical practice.Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Career Award at the Scientific Interface)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Director's Pioneer Award DP10D003646)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Transformative 1R01GM104948

    Modulator Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis: An Exploration of Current Research

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    Developing a drug therapy that addresses the root cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) by increasing CFTR protein levels has long been a research challenge. After genetic therapy failed because a suitable delivery system could not be found, researchers began searching for small organic molecules that could act as chaperones for CFTR. These molecules, known as modulators, allowed CFTR to be assembled correctly and function similarly to wild type CFTR. Since 2012, four modulator drugs have been developed, tested, and approved by the FDA. In October 2019, Trikafta was approved as the first triple-combination modulator drug and has completely revolutionized CF therapy. This paper details the research challenges, successes, and failures that led to the development of modulator therapies
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