25,725 research outputs found

    Serving to secure "Global Korea": Gender, mobility, and flight attendant labor migrants

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    This dissertation is an ethnography of mobility and modernity in contemporary South Korea (the Republic of Korea) following neoliberal restructuring precipitated by the Asian Financial Crisis (1997). It focuses on how comparative “service,” “security,” and “safety” fashioned “Global Korea”: an ongoing state-sponsored project aimed at promoting the economic, political, and cultural maturation of South Korea from a once notoriously inhospitable, “backward” country (hujin’guk) to a now welcoming, “advanced country” (sŏnjin’guk). Through physical embodiments of the culturally-specific idiom of “superior” service (sŏbisŭ), I argue that aspiring, current, and former Korean flight attendants have driven the production and maintenance of this national project. More broadly, as a driver of this national project, this occupation has emerged out of the country’s own aspirational flights from an earlier history of authoritarian rule, labor violence, and xenophobia. Against the backdrop of the Korean state’s aggressive neoliberal restructuring, globalization efforts, and current “Hell Chosun” (Helchosŏn) economy, a group of largely academically and/or class disadvantaged young women have been able secure individualized modes of pleasure, self-fulfillment, and class advancement via what I deem “service mobilities.” Service mobilities refers to the participation of mostly women in a traditionally devalued but growing sector of the global labor market, the “pink collar” economy centered around “feminine” care labor. Korean female flight attendants share labor skills resembling those of other foreign labor migrants (chiefly from the “Global South”), who perform care work deemed less desirable. Yet, Korean female flight attendants elude the stigmatizing, classed, and racialized category of “labor migrant.” Moreover, within the context of South Korea’s unique history of rapid modernization, the flight attendant occupation also commands considerable social prestige. Based on ethnographic and archival research on aspiring, current, and former Korean flight attendants, this dissertation asks how these unique care laborers negotiate a metaphorical and literal series of sustained border crossings and inspections between Korean flight attendants’ contingent status as lowly care-laboring migrants, on the one hand, and ostensibly glamorous, globetrotting elites, on the other. This study contends the following: first, the flight attendant occupation in South Korea represents new politics of pleasure and pain in contemporary East Asia. Second, Korean female flight attendants’ enactments of soft, sanitized, and glamorous (hwaryŏhada) service help to purify South Korea’s less savory past. In so doing, Korean flight attendants reconstitute the historical role of female laborers as burden bearers and caretakers of the Korean state.U of I OnlyAuthor submitted a 2-year U of I restriction extension request

    Hydrothermal treatment of waste plastics : an environmental impact study

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    This paper presents the attributional life cycle assessment results of a study of plastic recycling using hydrothermal treatment (HTT), a chemical recycling technology. HTT was investigated due to its potential to address current gaps in the plastic recycling system, largely due to several plastic packaging materials and formats that are currently not processed by traditional mechanical recycling technologies. As society transitions towards a net-zero-based circular economy, assessments should be conducted with a futuristic outlook, preventing costly mistakes by employing the right technologies in the right areas. The results using ReCiPe 2016 impact assessment methodology shows HTT with a GWP of 478 kg CO2 eq. per tonne can generate up to 80% reduction in climate change impacts when compared with comparable end-of-life treatment technologies whilst conserving material with the system. Additionally, the GWP could be reduced by up to 57% by changing how electricity is generated for on-site consumption. This represents a new understanding of the chemical recycling of polymers by establishing a prospective life cycle assessment study that looks to introduce a step-change in the recycling system and highlights the benefits of introducing this technology as opposed to the current model of disposal through incineration or landfill

    A critical review of the production of hydroxyaromatic carboxylic acids as a sustainable method for chemical utilisation and fixation of CO2

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    Hydroxyaromatic carboxylic acids (HACAs) such as salicylic acids, hydroxynaphthoic acids and their halogenated derivatives are essential feedstocks for the pharmaceutical, dye, fragrance, cosmetic and food industries. Large-scale production of HACAs is currently based on the Kolbe–Schmitt reaction between CO2 and petroleum-based phenolic compounds. This batch reaction is carried out at ∼125 °C, ∼85 bar and reaction times of up to 18 hours to achieve high conversions (≈99%). The long reaction times and dependence on fossil-derived phenols have negative sustainability implications. However, as a CO2-based process, HACA production has the potential for large-volume anthropogenic CO2 sequestration and contributes to net zero. A big challenge is that the current global production capacity of HACAs uses only about 41 450 tonnes per year of CO2 which is just ≈0.00012% of the annual anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, significant efforts are needed to increase both the sustainable production and demand for such CO2-based products to enhance their economic and environmental sustainability. This review covers the basic kinetic and thermodynamic stability of CO2. Thereafter, a comprehensive coverage of early and current developments to improve the carboxylation of phenols to make HACAs is given, while discussing their industrial potential. Moreover, it covers new propositions to use biomass-derived phenolic compounds for sustainable production of HACAs. There is also a need to expand the uses and applications of HACAs and recent reports on the production of HACA-based recyclable vinyl polymers point in the right direction

    Deep learning health management diagnostics applied to the NIST smoke experiments

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    Fire is one of the most important hazards that must be considered in advanced nuclear power plant safety assessments. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a large collection of experimental data and associated analyses related to the study of fire safety. In fact, computational fire models are based on quantitative comparisons to those experimental data. During the modeling process, it is important to develop diagnostic health management systems to check the equipment status in fire processes. For example, a fire sensor does not directly provide accurate and complex information that nuclear power plants (NPPs) require. With the assistance of the machine learning method, NPP operators can directly get information on local, ignition, fire material of an NPP fire, instead of temperature, smoke obscuration, gas concentration, and alarm signals. In order to improve the predictive capabilities, this work demonstrates how the deep learning classification method can be used as a diagnostic tool in a specific set of fire experiments. Through a single input from a sensor, the deep learning tool can predict the location and type of fire. This tool also has the capability to provide automatic signals to potential passive fire safety systems. In this work, test data are taken from a specific set of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) fire experiments in a residential home and analyzed by using the machine learning classification models. The networks chosen for comparison and evaluation are the dense neural networks, convolutional neural networks, long short-term memory networks, and decision trees. The dense neural network and long short-term memory network produce similar levels of accuracy, but the convolutional neural network produces the highest accuracy

    Key nuclear data for non-LWR reactivity analysis

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    An assessment of nuclear data performance for non-light-water reactor (non-LWR) reactivity calculations was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that involved a thorough literature review to collect related observations made across different research institutions, an interrogation of the latest ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data libraries, and propagation of nuclear data uncertainties to key figures of merit associated with reactor safety for six non-LWR benchmarks. The outcome of this comprehensive study was published in a technical report issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper provides a summary of the study’s key observations and conclusions and demonstrates with two examples how the various methods available in the SCALE code system were used to identify key cross section uncertainties for non-LWR reactivity analyses

    On Maritime Digitalization in Emerging Environments

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    The purpose of this chapter is to propose a conceptual framework for implementation of advance info-communication technology and systems (ICT&S) across maritime cluster in emerging environments, with emphasis on some South-East European countries and South Africa. Smart implementation and adoption of the ICT&S in shipping and port management have been considered due to the Holtham’s & Courtney\u27s model (2010). Furthermore, particular attention is given to Blockchain-based Maritime Supply Chain System (BMSCS) conceptual model, which includes distributed relational database, smart contracts, and crypto-currency payment mechanism as main constructs. The document workflow management, financial processes, and device connectivity are considered as key scenarios in the blockchain model. The stakeholders, who play the role of traditional intermediaries in the goods and accompanied documents and data flows, including overall supervision of the processes between end nodes, that is, shippers and customers, are encompassed within the BMSCS scheme. Some strengthens and frailty of BMSCS are highlighted, along with the suggestions for further investigation in this field, with the aim of better understanding prospective benefits and challenges of blockchain more extensive deployment across maritime sector in the future, with emphasize on developing environments
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